Up@dawn 2.0

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Study Guide H02

So I've been making this study guide. It has the quizzes up until last week. It also has the answers for MOST of the quizzes. Sorry about the missing answers.

Study Guide
Quiz 1- 08/25
1.     What is the chief thing that philosophy can do for us?
Teach how to live without certainty being paralyzed by hesitation
2.     What originally unpolitical Greek school of philosophy prepared the way for Christianity?
The Stoics
3.     What Renaissance philosopher was its most typical exponent?
Montaigne
4.     Whose fundamental certainty of his own existence led to "insanity" and a loss of common sense in philosophy?
Descartes
5.     To what two opposite dangers is every community exposed?
Ossification through too much discipline and reverence for tradition, and dissolution, or subjection to foreign conquest
Quiz 2- 08/30
1.     What has introduced an invasive "sporting spirit" to the child's play of walking?

2.     What does Gros say we escape from, by walking?
Identity
3.     According to Gros, “when you are walking, there is only one sort of performance that counts.” What is it?
4.     In Hindu philosophy, what are the four stages on the journey through life?
1st Ashrama- “Brahmacharya”- Student Stage
2nd Ashrama- “Grihastha”- Householder Stage
3rd Ashrama- “Vanaprastha”- Hermit Stage
4th Ashrama- “Sannyasa”- Wandering Ascetic Stage
5.     Whose students and literal followers were known as peripatetics?
Aristotle
6.     Who said he could only meditate when walking?
Jean-Jacques Rosseau
7.     Who roamed his "Sandwalk" daily with his fox terrier?
8.     How much does the average American walk?
10,000 steps/ 5 miles
Quiz 3- 09/01
1.     Of what was Socrates accused, and what was the formal charge against him in court?
Of being a natural philosopher, not believing in the gods, corrupting minds
2.     Why did Socrates say fear of death is not wisdom?
Possess courage and self-control, real wisdom
3.     What close connection is characteristic of Socrates and Plato?

4.     Wisdom consists in what, for Plato (according to Russell)?
“Success consists in te very exercise of wisdom”
5.     What, according to Goldstein, marks Plato's thinking as a pivotal stage in humanity?

6.     What "singularity" created the conditions for philosophy in ancient Greece ?

Human terms, human mattering, approaching the question
7.     Plato often betrays a horror of what?
Human nature
8.     What did Plato insist on, rather than final answers?

Quiz 4- 09/06
1.     Plato was a master of composing things like the Ring of Gyges, which was a what?
2.     Who said some scientists can't see the philosophical forest for the trees, and are thus trapped in generational prejudice?
3.     Who was the number-enchanted pre-Socratic who had a profound effect on Plato?
4.     Who is the physicist who inadequately addressed the question of nothing?
5.     What is the Ionian Enchantment?
6.     What book did Goldstein read in her first philosophy course?
7.     Besides epimeleia heautou, name at least two other kinds of questions Plato formulated.

Quiz 5- 09/08
1.     What are the three social classes and the "one royal lie" in Plato's Utopia?
Three Classes- common people, soldiers, guards
Royal Lie- God made three kinds of men- top or gold, middle or silver, low or brass/iron
2.     What is "justice" for Plato?
Don’t be a busybody- stay within your own class
3.     What's the difference between knowledge and opinion, for Plato?
Knowledge- anchored in idea, irreparable proof
Opinion- anything based on personal senses
4.     The prisoners in Plato's cave are like people in our world who lack what, and see only what?
Lack- destitute of philosophy
See- only shadows of one another
5.     What must the philosopher/guardian do?
Come back to the cave, share findings despite the penalties (even past death)
6.     How does the meaning of "outside" change on a long walk?
Normal walk- a state of transition, area between points A and B
Long walk- inhabit the area during the journey
7.     What does speed do to time?
Fast- Kills time
Slow- Expands time
8.     What is one of the secrets of walking?
Slow approach deepens and expands time
Quiz 6- 09/13
1.     What does Russell think Aristotle's influence on Alexander was?
Nothing- he was too headstrong
2.     Why does Russell call Aristotle's doctrine optimistic and teleological?

3.     What is "the good," for Aristotle?
Happiness
4.     Aristotle mainly agrees with those who define "virtue" how?
That which produces the good
5.     Progress in philosophy consists partly in bringing what to light?
Covert assumptions
6.     "Platonism" is often expressed in what assertion?
Abstract truths
7.     What is the Sublime Braid?
Goodness, truth, beauty
8.     What kind of piety results from coming to understand our real place in the larger scheme?
Secular piety
Quiz 7- 09/15
1.     Why was Diogenes called a "cynic"?
He lived like a dog, and the acient greek meaning of cynic is dog
2.     What did Diogenes mean when he said his aim in life was to "deface the coinage"?
He wanted to tear down the image of leaders
3.     What did Pyrrho's scepticism mean, in practice?
That one conformed to the customs of whatever country one inhabited
4.     How did Timon express his scepticism with regard to honey?
That honey is sweet I refuse to assert; that it appears sweet, I fully grant
5.     What was Epicurus' attitude towards luxurious pleasures?
He spat on them- luxurious pleasures tend to lead to
6.     What was Epicurus' philosophy designed to secure? What did he consider the "wise man's goal"?
Tranquility
Absence of pain
7.     What did Seneca bequeath to his family?
Example of a virtuous life
8.     Which Stoic was a slave? Which an emperor?
Emperor- Marcus Aurelius
Slave- Epictetus
9.     According to Gros, the only Greek sages who were authentic walkers were who? How did they differ from sedentary philosophers?
Cynics
Differ: appearance
10.  Why did the homeless Cynic call himself rich?
He enjoyed life and grew rich from the experience
Quiz 8- 09/20
1.     What did young Augustine pray for?
Eventual and earned chastity and continence
2.     What did Augustine believe about God, during his Manichaean period?
He was a vast and bright body, and he was a part of that body
3.     How did Augustine differ from Plato and Aristotle regarding time and creation? 
World was created from nothing by God
4.     What does Russell find odd about Augustine's preoccupations, on the eve of the dark ages?
Preserving virginity, instead of saving civilization or fighting the barbarians
5.     Platonic philosophy had a greater hold on Boethius than what?
Christian theology
6.     What obsession did Boethius not share with Augustine?
Sin
7.     It's impossible to be what, according to Gros, when walking?
Alone
8.     8.What turns everything into nonsense?
Chatter
Quiz 9- 09/22
1.     For what argument is Anselm chiefly known?

2.     What did Anselm consider the relation between reason and faith?

3.     What victory did Aquinas' influence secure?

4.     Why does Aquinas reject the ontological argument?

5.     In what way does Russell consider Aquinas "original"? Does Russell think Aquinas deserves hs "immense reputation"?

6.     Why doesn't Russell think Aquinas belongs with "the best philosophers"?

7.     What do we rediscover in walking?

8.     What did Emerson say he became while walking, instead of an egotist?


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