Up@dawn 2.0

Monday, September 30, 2019

The formula for art

Dewey describes an experience, such as art, as having as its source an "impulsion," a deep craving. That these impulsions, nature, and our past experiences come together to shape fresh experiences which may be manifested as art. But, he cautions that just raw emotion isn't enough. That what is deemed "self-expression" is closer to "self-exposure," serving no real purpose that others can connect with. To Dewey's thinking, for the art experience to be valid, one must manage the "materials" of the experience for it to truly become art.

According to Dewey, something that starts out as natural is transformed into art only when it is willfully manipulated. That only then can what was originally spontaneous acts enrich life and the community. Like a winepress, the pressure applied by natural impulses and experiences produces a work of art. Emotion can not stand alone but must concern some fact or idea. To his thinking, there are no real emotions, such as fear, hate, or love. They exist solely in relation to another thing. Without this harnessed emotion, an object may exhibit craftsmanship, but it is not art.

If emotions are too intense, a person is overwhelmed and lacks the ability to express it. On the other
Edvard Munch The Scream, 1893
National Gallery, Oslo
Munch was well acquainted with heartbreak,
 his mother, older sister and father all died while he was young.
hand, too little emotion results in a cold end product that does not communicate. Dewey does hold in high esteem the artist who is so absorbed in their subject that they lose themselves in it as long as they have emersed themselves in objective experiences of similar situations. He quotes Van Gogh saying "emotions are sometimes so strong that one works without knowing that one works, and the strokes come with a sequence and coherence like that of words in a speech or letter."

Dewey describes how, when an artist imagines where or places paint on a canvas, they are caught up in this act of ordering emotions and experiences. He maintains that what separates artists from most people is this ability to distill feelings and ideas rather than the mere technical skills of drawing, painting, or sculpting.

Dewey maintains that a culture in which art serves merely as some sort of escape from reality or decoration for everyday living is imperfect.  To him, in an ideal society, art is an integral part of day-to-day life.

Dr. Singh’s Tibetan Buddhism class

What's my line?

The birds

Three Billion Canaries in the Coal Mine

What does it mean for us that birds are dying? And what can we do about it?
NASHVILLE — During the nearly quarter-century that my family has lived in this house, the changes in our neighborhood have become increasingly apparent: fewer trees and wildflowers, fewer bees and butterflies and grasshoppers, fewer tree frogs and songbirds. The vast majority of Tennessee is still rural, and for years I told myself that such changes were merely circumstantial, specific to a city undergoing rapid gentrification and explosive growth. I wasn’t trying to save the world by putting up nest boxes for the birds or letting the wildflowers in my yard bloom out before mowing. I was hoping only to provide a small way station for migrating wildlife, trusting they would be fine once they cleared the affluence zone that is the New Nashville.

I was wrong. A new study in the journal Science reports that nearly 3 billion North American birds have disappeared since 1970. That’s 29 percent of all birds on this continent. The data are both incontrovertible and shocking. “We were stunned by the result,” Cornell University’s Kenneth V. Rosenberg, the study’s lead author, told The Times.

This is not a report that projects future losses on the basis of current trends. It is not an update on the state of rare birds already in trouble. This study enumerates actual losses of familiar species — ordinary backyard birds like sparrows and swifts, swallows and blue jays. The anecdotal evidence from my own yard, it turns out, is everywhere.

You may have heard of the proverbial canary in the coal mine — caged birds whose sensitivity to lethal gasses served as an early-warning system to coal miners; if the canary died, they knew it was time to flee. This is what ornithologists John W. Fitzpatrick and Peter P. Marra meant when they wrote, in an opinion piece for The Times, that “Birds are indicator species, serving as acutely sensitive barometers of environmental health, and their mass declines signal that the earth’s biological systems are in trouble.”

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Buddhism Summary

Midterm Report: Heather Faulkner, Riley Fox, Victoria Cowen 
Section 12

Buddha Statue

The founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, was born into a royal family. His life was full of luxuries, in part, because his father wanted to prevent him from becoming a renouncer. Gautama’s ideas about human suffering began when he went on several chariot rides, where he witnessed various forms of human suffering of great severity. He couldn’t help but notice the contrast between his life and the lives of those who suffered, leading him to believe that the pleasures of life can only temporarily disguise human suffering.  

After Gautama left his wife, he met a multitude of mentors. He experienced an increase of suffering when he began practicing renunciation under a tree until he nearly starved. In order to end his suffering, he consumed food, of course, but he also continued meditating. He continued his meditation until he eventually reached Nirvana. Later becoming known as the Buddha, or the “Enlightened One,” Gautama attempted to ease the suffering of others by teaching them the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.  

The Four Noble Truths include Dukkha, Samudaya, Nirodha, and Magga. Dukkha refers to the idea that suffering exists. Samudaya means that there is always a cause of suffering. Nirodha suggests that there is an end to suffering, while the fourth noble truth, or Magga, instructs that in order to successfully end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path can be broken up into three basic sections. The first, including Samma Ditthi and Samma Sankappa, stresses the importance of wisdom. Next, Samma Vaca, Samma Kammanta, and Samma Ajiva, promote the idea of virtue and morality in speech, conduct, and livelihood. Lastly, Samma Vayama, Samma Sati, and Samma Samadhi, represent concentration and meditation, as it relates to one’s thoughtful effort, mindfulness, and concentration.  

Buddhist religious practices are meant to aid individuals along the path of enlightenment. In many ways, these practices are also a form of worship to show one’s loyalty to the Buddha. Meditation is a practice meant to elicit deep understanding of the world and oneself through personal transformation. The goal is to reach a state of enlightenment, or nirvana, by stilling the mind. 

Prayer Wheels
Short phrases or prayers, called mantras, are repeatedly said aloud, or in one’s thoughts, in order to bring about spiritual enlightenment. Mantras, such as, “om mani padme hum,” are often recited during meditation. To keep track of one’s mantra repetitions, it isn’t uncommon to use prayer beads or prayer wheels 

Also used during meditation are mudras, or hand gestures, which serve as a nonverbal form of communication, symbolizing divine beings and powers. A famous mudra often found in Buddhist art, is the Abhaya Mudra, which represents fearlessness. Lastly, the veneration of Buddha involves meditating on Buddha’s character, showing reverence, or gift-giving.  

Buddhist Monk
After the Buddha passed away, the monks, his celibate followers, began settling into monasteries that were essentially funded by the gifts given to them by the laity, or ordinary people, in exchange for spiritual guidance through the Buddha's teachings. Buddhism eventually spread throughout Sri Lanka and South India with the help of Ashoka, a famous king, and his son.  

Interestingly, elements of Buddhism are still quite popular today, even in the western world. However, modern meditation doesn't seem to be as attached to its more traditional and spiritual Buddhist roots. Westerners may choose to meditate, at least in part, because of recent research touting the countless psychological and physical benefits associated with regular meditation.   

Many understand Buddhism as a way of life, which may explain why certain teachings and practices seem to be relatively compatible with differing secular and religious viewpoints. It is not uncommon for westerners to enjoy the benefits of Buddhist practices, such as meditation, either through solo practice, or with the guidance of popular phone apps, including Headspace or Calm. 

Discussion Questions: 
1.) Is it possible to completely turn away from vices? 
2.) Are these rules reasonable? 
3.) Would you be able to follow these practices? Willing to?  
4.) Is meditation a possible remedy? Why or why not would it work in your opinion? 

       Quiz Questions: 
      1.) What are the short prayers or phrases called? Mantras 
      2.) What is the end goal of Buddhism? Find nirvana 
      3.) What is the main practice performed in this religion? Meditation 

Competition: Buddha, Confucius, and Nietzsche

Section 13: Ruj, Brandon, Erin

Competition: Buddha, Confucius, and Nietzsche  

We were inspired by this comic strip by Existential Comics that showed four very different philosophers playing a board game and how they would each approach the game. Their philosophy on life and competition would dictate whether they were focused on winning, focused on the experience, or focused on teamwork. We each picked three different philosophers that interested us to determine how they might approach a competition if they were to play together.

*Please follow the link to Existential Comics to view the full comic.*

Buddha's Approach:

Buddha is not a name but a title, it means “one who is awake” in Sanskrit; his actual name was Siddhartha Gautama. He was born into a royal family in modern day Nepal, near borders of India. Growing up Guatama lived a very extravagant life, however during his late 20s he came to the realization that his social status will not protect him from sickness, getting old, and death; he decided to leave his loyal responsibilities and begin a spiritual quest. After years of practicing and learning from different mendicant, he was awakened to the true nature of reality, after that he became known as the Buddha. After his enlightenment, he spent the rest of his life helping other people to recognize their own enlightenment.

Buddha strongly believed that we are all one and one person's success is everybody is success. He often mentioned that happiness, success, and bliss come when we appreciate one another's work. As he says, “When you move your focus from competition to contribution life becomes a celebration.” For Buddha cooperation humankind is more important than competition. For instance, in a running race if someone falls, Buddha will be the person who will stop and help that person back up to their feet, because he believes that we are all one and we succeed when we cooperate. Buddha’s approach keeps him away from hate, greed, ignorance, which is a positive concept that promotes harmony and peace. However, some philosophers view Buddha’s approach as a weak point, because he isn’t trying his best to reach his full potential and falling behind as a result of helping others.

Confucius' Approach:

Confucius whose real name is Kong Qiu (aka Mater Kong) is known as a Chinese philosopher and teacher. Confucius is a man that strived toward equality and motivating society. He felt that if he lived by what he believed, others will follow. This lead to his propagation of Confucianism, a Western term that has no counterpart in Chinese, but is a worldview, a social ethic, a political ideology, a scholarly tradition, and a way of life. This is sometimes viewed as a philosophy and a religion. He viewed competition as a great resource to learn from your peers regardless of winning or losing. Refrain from judging another from their bad qualities, instead uplift and learn from all.

For instance, if Confucius and a classmate were competing to see who will get a better grade on a test, and his classmate fails, Confucius would not brag or boast. He would ask questions to understand what the classmate did wrong and how he could help his classmate prepare to do better for the next test. As a competitor, we would be most focused on learning from the experience. Remember what mistakes that classmate did to help others avoid those same mistakes. Confucius has a lot of positive aspects, but there are also some negatives. Although we focus heavily on bettering ourselves, we also need to remind ourselves of how far we have come and how much we have accomplished. Realizing the success of your positive actions will make you want to do more and relieve stress. Overall, Confucius aim is to spread equality throughout the world using the silver rule, which is similar to the Golden Rule (treat others the way you want to be treated).

Nietzsche's Approach:

Friedrich Nietzsche was, and still is, a controversial individual in history. His philosophies relate to competition in many ways given his work focused on the obstacles holding humans back, overcoming challenges at all costs, and reaching our fullest potential. He believed that society was held back by collective values, which were reinforced by religion, that perpetuate weakness and punished the strong. He also believed that a “Transvaluation,” or collective reevaluation of societal values was needed in order to enforce values that promote the strongest to evolve. The individuals, what he called the “Ubermensch” or superman, would be closer to embodying humankind's full potential of power.

For Nietzsche, the priority is always power; the ends would justify the means in any competition or game. He does not adhere to the values of the weak like humility, kindness, compassion, or empathy. He would not only be focused on winning but achieving one’s highest potential. Positives of his approach are that it thrives in competition, open to risk taking which can garner greater rewards, and it pushes individuals to embrace their power and grow it. However, the negatives of his approach far outweigh the positives. It’s an extremely selfish way of life and very destructive. These are the same ideals that, thanks largely to his sister’s editing of his work after his death, were used to fuel the Nazi concept of a “Master Race” and allow them to unapologetically inflict cruelty on everyone, even their own people.

Quiz: Who is it? Buddha, Confucius, or Nietzsche

*Related to in-class presentation.
  1. Who was descended from royalty? 
  2. Who believed religion made humans weak?
  3. We compete but don’t keep score, because win or lose we learn from the experience.
  4. If only one succeeds through cooperation, then we all actually succeed.
  5. In the fable of the tortoise and the hare, I’d be the tortoise. 
  6. Who believed in loving every aspect of your life?
  7. Obstacles make you more powerful.
  8. I appreciate the talent and skill of my competitors, even if they may be more talented than myself.
  9. Achieving one’s full potential is good for all of society, even if some are left behind in the process.  


  1. What kind of competitor are you? 
  2. Is your approach to competition a conscious choice or did it arise naturally?
  3. Which approach do you believe is the best for human kind? Why? 

Lyceum Friday

Is College Merely Helping Those Who Need Help Least?

Tara Westover (this year's convocation speaker, author of Educated) reviews THE YEARS THAT MATTER MOST: How College Makes or Breaks Us, By Paul Tough.
Paul Tough shows that higher education does not ameliorate the inequities of K-12 but, rather, magnifies them.

...When I was 17 I enrolled in college and everything changed. History, philosophy, geography: A decade at the world’s best universities will lift you to new ground. The life I live now is not the life I was born to. I was propelled up to it, and the motor that powered my ascent was a university education.

This is our ideal of higher education: as an engine of opportunity. And data show that, when it works, higher education is exactly that. So why is it that The Chronicle of Higher Education recently called our system an “engine of inequality”? Has a college degree lost its transformative power, its capacity for lift?

Put simply, no, it hasn’t. We live in a knowledge economy, and human capital has never been more valuable. The problem is distribution. As higher education has increased in value, that value has increasingly become captured by those at the top, so that today, whether you graduate from college is largely determined by your parents’ income. In the United States, 77 percent of children born into the top income quartile will earn a degree by age 24, but for the bottom quartile that number is a mere 9 percent. The implications are clear: The education system isn’t transforming the lives of those who need it most; it is dispensing ever more opportunity to those who need it least... (continues)
Is Meritocracy Making Everyone Miserable?
In a renewed debate over élite higher education, the question is whether the system is broken or the whole idea was a terrible mistake. By Louis Menand

In recent years, we have been focussed on two problems, social mobility and income inequality, and the place these issues appear to meet is higher education. That’s because education in the United States is supposed to be meritocratic. If the educational system is reproducing existing class and status hierarchies—if most of the benefits are going to students who are privileged already—then either meritocracy isn’t working properly or it wasn’t the right approach in the first place. Paul Tough, in “The Years That Matter Most: How College Makes or Breaks Us” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt), thinks that the problem is a broken system. Daniel Markovits, in “The Meritocracy Trap” (Penguin Press), thinks that the whole idea was a terrible mistake.

The term “meritocracy” was invented in the nineteen-fifties with a satirical intent that has now mostly been lost. “Merit” was originally defined as “I.Q. plus effort,” but it has evolved to stand for a somewhat ineffable combination of cognitive abilities, extracurricular talents, and socially valuable personal qualities, like leadership and civic-mindedness. Attributes extraneous to merit, such as gender, skin color, physical ableness, and family income, are not supposed to constrain the choice of educational pathways.

Educational sorting often begins very early in the United States, as when schoolchildren are selected for “gifted and talented” programs, and it continues in high school, where some students are pushed onto vocational tracks. But every American has the right to an elementary- and high-school education. You just need to show up. Until you are sixteen, you are required by law to show up.

College is different. College is a bottleneck. You usually have to apply, and you almost always have to pay, and college admissions is a straight-up sorting mechanism. You are either selected or rejected. And it matters where. Research shows that the more selective a college’s admissions process the greater the economic value of the degree. The narrower the entryway, the broader the range of opportunities on the other side. College, in turn, sorts by qualifying some students for graduate and professional education (law, dentistry, architecture). And graduate and professional education then sorts for the labor market. It’s little gold stars all the way up.

College is also a kind of dating service. You and your classmates have chosen and been chosen by the same school, which means that your classmates are typically people whose abilities and interests are comparable to your own. And, for many people, friendships with other students constitute the most valuable return on their investment in college education. One of the things they are buying is entrance into a network of classmates whose careers may intersect profitably with theirs, and alumni who can become references and open doors.

We find it unseemly when someone is hired because his or her mom or dad made a phone call. We think that’s unmeritocratic. But we are not, usually, taken aback when we learn that someone got a job interview through a college roommate or an alumni connection, even though that is also unmeritocratic. We accept that those connections, along with connections that students make with their professors, are among the things you “earn” by getting into a college. It’s one of the rewards for merit.

Education therefore plays an outsized role in people’s lives. It can vastly outweigh the effects of family and local community on people’s beliefs, values, tastes, and life paths. For the individual student, the investment in time and money, not to mention the stress, can be enormous. But, according to Steven Brint’s “Two Cheers for Higher Education” (Princeton), even though tuition and fees increased by more than four times the rate of inflation between 1980 and 2012, college and graduate-school enrollments grew every year. (There has been a dip in recent years.)

Almost every study concludes that getting a college degree is worth it. What is known as the college wage premium—the difference in lifetime earnings between someone with only a high-school diploma and someone with a college degree—is now, by one calculation, a hundred and sixty-eight per cent. For people with an advanced degree, the wage premium is two hundred and thirteen per cent. (Of course, the more people who get a college degree—about a third of the population now has a bachelor’s degree—the greater the penalty for not having one. The decrease in earnings for non-degree holders raises the premium.)

Saturday, September 28, 2019

New from John Kaag

Study Guide, exam 1

Guess I get the bonus run...

Exam 1 will be drawn from the even-numbered quiz questions, re-worded when necessary to fit the Answer Bank format (so don't try to just memorize these Qs-&-As, actually re-read the relevant texts). Also, someone said they'd made a quizlet? If you find it, caveat emptor... in the past, people have posted quizlets with errant answers. Beware.

1. Name two of the ways you can earn a base in our class. (See "course requirements" & other info in the sidebar & on the syllabus)

2. How many bases must you earn each class, to "circle the diamond" and claim your daily participation run on the scorecard?

3. How do you earn your first base in each class?

4. If you posted just one comment before class, what will you mark on the scorecard?

5. How can you earn bases on days when you're not present?

6. Suppose you came to class one day, turned on the computer/projector and opened the CoPhi site,and had posted a comment, a discussion question, an alternate quiz question, AND a link to a relevant YouTube video before class. Did you earn your daily participation run?

7. Did you have any "extra bases" in the scenario posed in the previous question?

8. How can you indicate extra bases on the scorecard?

9. What are Dr. Oliver's office hours? Where is his office? What is his email address?

10. What does James consider the most interesting and important thing about each of us?

11. How does James define "the philosophy which is so important in each of us"?

12. What's the difference between "tough- and tender-minded" philosophies?

13. What philosopher tried "to justify the ways of God to man, and to prove that the world we live in is the best of possible worlds", and what did James think of him?

14. According to the video "What is Philosophy For?," being wise means what?
FL 1-2
15. What "remarkable phrase" was the catalyst for Kurt Andersen in writing Fantasyland?

16. Who coined "truthiness"?

17. Why does Andersen think Americans are so fantasy-prone?

18. What two big ideas of Martin Luther's set the stage for "Fantasyland"?

1. When was the iconic Pale Blue Dot photo taken, and at whose instigation?

2. The pbd gives no hint of what?

3. What does Sagan say the pbd underscores?

4. What poet (noted in an epigraph below) said "the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time"?

5. What will be the anniversary significance of July 20, 2019 for today's topic?

6. What was on the Pioneer plaque?

7. What recorded aural object of wide cultural interest is now traveling beyond our solar system, aboard Voyager?

8. According to Neil deGrasse Tyson, what forms of kinship are clarified and embraced by the "cosmic perspective"?

9. Why should we keep Voyager in mind, according to Maria Popova?

10. What pace is quickening, in our time (said Carl Sagan)?


1. What were Aristotle's followers called?

2. Who said his mind only worked with his legs?

3. Whose mentor called walking "gymnastics for the mind"?

4. Who had a "Sand-walk"?

5. How much does the average American walk?

6. Name a city with a "Philosophers' Walk".

FL 3-4
7. What was Sir Walter Raleigh's dream and fantasy, and what did he help invent?

8. By what has American civilization been shaped, according to historian Daniel Boorstin?

9. What English Enlightenment philosopher said humans tend to notice instances that confirm their prior superstitions and opinions but ignore ("neglect and pass by") those that do not?

10. Is America's founding mythology, the first nonnative new Americans who mattered were who?

11. What did the early Puritans predict was immanent?

1. What cultural dichotomy exists in philosophy?

2. Rather than see God as transcendent ("outside the world") or immanent ("inside the world"), how do indigenous philosophies understand God?

3. What's one of Miguel van der Velden's reasons for why we should study indigenous philosophies?

4. Although they are very diverse, indigenous communities are commonly driven by what?

5. Scott Pratt thinks we should also recognize what about the origin of American philosophy?

6. According to Hegel, in what two places did human history/progress begin and end?

FL 5-6
7. What made Anne Hutchinson "so American"?

8. How was freedom of thought in early America different from that of Europe in the 17th century?

9. According to some Puritans, who were "Satan's soldiers" in America?

10. What "evidence" was the primary basis for judgments in the Salem witch trials?

11. Did most people in New England believe in witches, during the infamous Salem witch trials?

12. What's Protestantism's enduring influence?

1. How are Revel and Ricard related, and what is their philosophical difference?

2. What's the ultimate goal of Tibetan Buddhism?

3. What does Ricard say is the cause of suffering?

4.  Pain and suffering provide what opportunity in Buddhism?

5. Buddhism's metaphysical understanding of consciousness indicates what position regarding the nature of reality?

6. What caused Stephen Batchelor to leave Tibetan Buddhism?

FL 7-8
7. What did the Holy Spirit produce in "respectable people," during the Great Awakening?

8. What "intense supernatural feeling" did George Whitefield implant in American Christianity?

9. Why, according to Alexander Hamilton, did the framers omit God from the Constitution?

10. What, according to Kant, is the motto of enlightenment?

11. Enlightenment thinkers were sure that what would win in the "marketplace of ideas?"

12. What kind of questions "burden" human thought, but cannot finally be answered?
1. The Pre-Socratics were recognized in antiquity as the first what?

2. What's inaccurate or problematic about the term "Pre-Socratic"?

3. What later philosopher identified the Pre-Socratics as his predecessors both chronologically and thematically?

4. Compared to Hesiod and Homer, what was different about how the Pre-Socratics saw the world?

5. Name the three Milesians along with their respective "first principles."

6. As material monists, the Milesian Pre-Socratics believed what about the "stuff" of reality?

FL 9-10
7. Charles Finney thought the main point was not Presbyterian doctrine but for people to what?

8. How did Thomas Jefferson characterize the religiosity of the South?

9. What "legend" about Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence did Ronald Reagan report as fact?

10. What was the 19th century "Woodstock for American Christianity"?

11. What French observer said no country in the world was as fanatically Christian as America?

12. The most interesting thing about Joseph Smith is what?

13. What does Dickens finish through an "amateur experience of houselessness?"

14. What disease leads to "a trembling of the limbs, somnolency, misery, and crumbling to pieces?"
1. Democritus said everything is constructed of what?

2. Democritus' theory involved a "strong distinction between" what?

3. Diogenes of Apollonia (not to be confused with the Cynic) was said to be the last of what?

4. What evidence did Diogenes offer for his rejection of pluralism in favor of "one single thing?"

5. What pre-Socratic project did the Sophist Protagoras doubt?

6. The wide range of pre-Socratic thought includes what topics? 

7. What's the reward for "an honest day's walk"? 

8. What comes in every person's youth and is best met with a "grim" walk?

FL 11-12
9. What did Arthur C. Clarke say about technology?

10. What's the upside of homeopathy?

11. Who invented a religion that said pain, suffering, and disease are not real? What is that religion?

12. What pseudoscience based psychological traits on "topographical details of a person's skull [felt] through the scalp?"

13. How did the California Gold Rush alter Americans' view of reality?

14. What job category can be traced to the inception of America?

15. How are Americans like ants and grasshoppers? 
1. What kind of conversation did Socrates consider a success?

2. What was wisdom, for Socrates?

3. It is mostly through what texts that we know the ideas and beliefs of Socrates?
4. With what Platonic theory does the parable of the cave connect?

5. Was it abstract or empircal reasoning that Plato valued more?

6. According to Plato, how was the ideal society organized? 

8. What sort of companions are needed for walking the field?

9. What might be like a "gentle transfusion from dull reality to universal reality?"

FL 13-14
10. What Englightenment attitude resulted in the tendency to "disbelieve official explanations?"

11. What do religious and conspiratorial explanations have in common?

12. What was the Freemasons' Secret, according to Ben Franklin?

13. How did many Northerners account for their side's early setbacks in the Civil War?

14. What novel idealized the South and was considered "an antidote to the abolition mischief?"

15. Who did Mark Twain blame for "measureless harm" that reversed southern progress and led to the Civil War?
LH 2
1. What did Aristotle mean by "one swallow doesn't make a summer"?

2. In Raphael's School of Athens, who reaches out towards the world in front of him?

3. What does eudaimonia mean?

4. How can we increase our chance of eudaimonia?

5. Eudaimonia can only be achieved in relation to what?

6. How is "truth by authority" hostile to the spirit of philosophy?

7. Hazlitt says the "soul of a journey" is what?

8. What happens "with change of place?"

FL 15, 16
9. The American pastoral ideal grew out of what?

10. Who called himself a transparent eyeball?

11. What extraordinary (and false) astronomical discovery was reported and widely believed in 1835?

12. What fundamental Fantasyland mindset was exploited and illustrated by the early career of P.T. Barnum?

13. What event celebrating the 400th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the new world featured more than a dozen temporary, disposable, full-size facsimile neoclassical buildings?

14. What complex was founded in America over the course of nineteeth century?