Up@dawn 2.0

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Midterm Post 3. Andrew Wheeler Sec. 8

I briefly mentioned at the end of my last post that friends how friends help you determine your self worth. Which I whole heartedly believe to be true. A true friend will build up your self esteem when it needs to be built up, and tear that shit down when you get a big head.

I’ve talked about how friends will be the people there for you when you’re in need. Whatever event causes you to need people like this, they will rise to the occasion. Knowing this is almost an empowering feeling. I can think of multiple times that I knew I had the support of my friends and how it felt. The most memorable though, would most likely be my graduation night. I had moved to a knew school for my senior year and somehow ( don’t ask me because it confused me too) was one of the valedictorians. Even though I had only been there for one school year, most of the graduating class congratulated myself more the other speakers. The feeling that all these people that I had never seen in my life a year before hand were supporting and loving me was overwhelming. It was definitely a bigger highlight to me than anything else I had accomplished throughout my high school career.

Love and support are two terms that generally carry some sense of endearment, but they can have another side. Anyone have redneck relatives that preached “tough love” while making you do impossible tasks? It’s easy to love people in the positive way, they’r generally receptive to that. Telling people what they do not want to hear is tough. If a friend gets a big head, it’s not necessarily hard to tell them to quit being an asshole. When a friend has tough life decisions and you have to be the one to tell them what they should do, that’s hard. Telling someone to get over a boyfriend/ girlfriend of many years, that’s hard. It’s time like this that the harder form of love comes out. The friends that will tell you things you need to hear such as these are the ones worth having around.

If no one other than Dr. Oliver reads this I’m still happy that I chose this topic because of how it caused personal introspection. Many thoughts I can’t describe how I like to in a sober state of mind though. I whole-heartedly believe two things about friends: 1. without them a man is nothing and 2. mine are the best in the world.

Section 11 Group 1: Jesus and Doubt

Reading about Jesus's internal conflicts when he faces the duty he must act to sacrifice himself, one truly relates to his human nature. It made us realize that Jesus was not just the Son of God, or a part of God, but he was a man. And he had human worries like any of us would facing such a gigantic responsibility. Jesus was questioning the faith of everyone around him. He was uncertain about his disciples, even though they followed him blindly. He was more uncertain, however, about God himself, and wanted more of a reason to sacrifice himself in such a way.
Jesus can't be blamed for feeling alone and untrusting about his people's faith in him. It was for his miracles that anyone started listened to him. Jesus felt that people should believe for his word, not his actions.

1(Factual): What was Jesus' religion?
2(Discussion): Would you have believed Jesus's preaching without seeing any miracles?

Report: Socrates and Plato from Kenya Terry Section 8

Kenya Terry
February 29, 2012
Plato and Socrates
            Plato compared to any other philosopher before or after him was the brightest of all.  His ideas are still used today in our government and society.  He made sure that his teaching along with Socrates, his alter personality, teaching would forever be remembered now matter what year.  And he was right because most of what is believed today goes along with what Plato and Aristotle have brought to the world.  Although Socrates did not live long enough to help Plato with anymore ideas he was a big part in helping Plato come up with ideas and putting together what he thought things should be like and why they are that way.
            To start off I will tell you a little history and how he became the great philosopher he was known for.  Plato was born in Athens BC 428-427and died 348-347 BC he was 80 when he died. He gave more insight on western philosophy and that is why his philosophy is so important to this day. His views were influenced by Homer, Hesiod, Aristophanes, Aesop, Protagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Orphism and mostly Socrates.  Although he may have had a lot of people to influence him, but he influenced almost every philosopher after him and they have all had uses of Plato’s philosophy.
            Plato was a classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues and founder of the Academy in Athens.  He was the student of Socrates and Aristotle was the student of Plato and they all learned from one another to come up with their own ideas.  The central idea in Plato’s philosophy was his theory of forms.  He was basically combining Heraclitus and Parmenides “two-world” cosmology in which our world is full of change and that the other world isothermal and unchanging like Parmenides wanted it to be. Plato decided that the two cross each other and they aren’t two different world but all together. 
            Plato mostly talks about a father and son relationship and questions whether if the father has a relationship with their sons depending on how well they turn out.  I do not think that a father should have to decide whether to deal with his son or not just because if they end up bad or not.  They should want to deal with them because they are their sons and that they love him.  Granted some fathers do not deal with their sons because they do not turn out well.  Do they ever wonder t hat if they spent more time with their sons and had more interest in them rather than letting them face thing alone that they would turn out fine.  Fathers have a deeper bond with their sons if they spend time with them because they want the best for their sons and they want them to be like them.
            Socrates disagrees he was not much a family man and he thinks that fathers that spend so much money on their sons just so they will end up right is stupid.  He does not see the point in getting tutors and coaches so that your son can be the best at any and everything.  I somewhat to an extent agree with Socrates and I also disagree with him.  Fathers should not have to pay people so that their sons can be the best at everything.  If they want their son to be good at something spend time with them and try to get to know what they like.  Just paying people to make your son into something that they don’t want to be is pointless and then if they are not good at anything then what.  You are going to disown your son because you don’t have the same interest and that he would rather play chess than be athletic.
            Socrates questions human’s ability to think that they have to grasp something for it to be real.  He thinks people like him find anything that can inspire them and make them do something more than what reality has in for them to be real.  Some people are not like and are completely happy with the material things that they attach themselves to be real. They don’t have muses like him where as he can believe in something and know in his own knowledge that it is real.  In most cases I believe that to be true.
            Just because you do not see something or cannot physically touch it does not mean it is not real.  What you consider real and fake to be depends on how much you believe in it and how much you know in your own knowledge it is to be true.  Just because God isn’t right in mean face where I can touchy him and know that he is physically here does not mean that he is not real to me.  I have gotten to the point where my muse comes from Him knowing that I believe in my God and know that he does things for me in his own way makes it real enough for me. I do not need proof nor do I need to go and prove it to someone else that what I know is true.
            Reality is so stuck on things that you can feel and touch that people don’t see any reason to believe in anything else.  To go beyond the limit that you have put yourself in and have a muse as Socrates does is much more.  He found happiness in other things that he didn’t have to prove to anyone one else was real. That where all his ideas come from the knowledge of looking at something material and going beyond what lies behind it.  Finding a reason as to why something is and why it is important to him brought him happiness.   Socrates says true reality is unavailable to people who just use their senses to find out what is real to them and that is what is stopping them from going on.
            Getting back to Plato whose philosophical views he believes that “philosophy kings” should rule because to rule a country right you have to have reason and wisdom.  A large part of the Republic that Plato has come up with is the educational system so that “philosopher kings” can be raised properly.  Socrates on the other hand says that the Republic contains farmers, merchants, craftsmen, and wage-earners. The Republic in Socrates eyes contains no philosopher kings or material things that people can get attached to quickly. Socrates focuses on making the right kind of human one that is hard working and not bound to material things able to go beyond what they think is reality.
            Plato’s Republic argues that for a good Republic you need “philosopher kings” justifies their personal beliefs.  Although Socrates and Plato had different views on the Republic they agree that philosopher have to be open to new ideas, has to have love for wisdom, and have the courage to act on your ideas according to wisdom.  If you cannot stick to your own ideas and follow through with them how to expect other people to see your side of things and respect your decisions.  I agree with both Socrates and Plato because both of those views have important essentials you need to run a good country.
            You need a good government who can be wise about the decision they make and be able to stand behind their decisions no matter what wrong turn they may take. You also need people who know how not to be selfish and work hard for what they want out of life.  You need people that can go beyond their boundaries and past material things so that can accept what true reality is.  You can be content with the things you already have but you can be better if you can learn to accept all of the little things around you.  Understanding how both the government has to work together and how the people have to work together and be open to new things is important in a society as well.
                 All of Plato’s ideas are very good has been used widely throughout history from the time of the philosopher after his death to the philosophers today.  He had help from Socrates who had a different view of things but mostly agreed and spoke for Plato. They worked together and Plato learned a lot from Socrates until his execution.

Women && Hip-Hop (Midterm) Post 3.

This is the last installment of my blog post. The book I have been reading is Hip Hop and Philosophy Rhyme to Reason. I feel the book has good topics and addressed great points. However, I could not truly decided what to make my last blog post about. So I decided just free style a little bit about women in hip hop and women in philosophy.

In philosophy class, I can say we have mentioned one woman who is important in philosophy. Jennifer Hecht's book, Doubt, commented on Hypatia. Hypatia was a brilliant teacher. She taught about mathematics and philosophy. At first, I did not recognize her importance in philosophy, but it was her death that made her important. After Hypatia was killed, Alexandria went on the downfall. Several scholars left Alexandria, and a fire burned the library. All the information contained in the library was lost, so that was a major setback for philosophy. Furthermore, another reason makes Hypatia important, well to me. Hypatia is a woman in philosophy! A subject that men dominated. She was surrounded by men. During her time, being a woman and educated was rare. She was doing things that men only did. She was teacher,and she would go to all male events. Hypatia had courage. She stepped outside the normal for women and tried something different. For women then, the private sphere is where they belonged. They stayed home and took care of the house and children. When a woman decided to invest in her education, she could have been looked at as "one of the boys".  I have no doubt that women who lived during Hypatia's time, thought about the world around them and how it works. They might even questioned certain things about life, but they lived in a time when they were not considered a superior sex. Therefore, I feel for the time period and what was consider normal for the society played a key role in why women were not seen in philosophy as much as men.

Just like in philosophy, women were not a major part of Hip-Hop for a while. When Hip-Hop first came about, it was dominated by men. Men that talked down on women. They called women almost every name in the book from bitch, hoe, and trick. Of course, all these names degraded women. However, when women stepped in Hip-Hop, they were a forced to be reckoned with. For example, MC Lyte who came into Hip-Hop in the late 80s said, "Do you understand the metaphoric phrase 'Lyte as a Rock? It's explaining, how heavy the young lady is." (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rsgrgo5f-0) Women are just as significant as their male counterparts. Also, in Queen Latifah's Ladies First, she expressed how women are just as good as men and sometimes even better.(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8j19AWY78bM) As time continued, women became more prevalent in a world that men seemed to control. However, female hip-hop artists have made major impacts on hip-hop. They have showed women are just as capable of rapping as men are.

In Hip-Hop and philosophy, women are outnumbered by men. Men have been the dominate players in these two fields. They have had more lasting effects in Hip-Hop and philosophy. Nevertheless, women have stepped out of their comfort zone to prove to the world they are just as good and capable as any man in their given field of interest. Women are a major part of society, and we should not be taken lightly.

Midterm Post 2. Andrew Wheeler Sec. 8

In the last post, I talked briefly about a friend’s responsibility to support and mutual respect, but I had not yet discussed the love between friends.

In the ancient Greek language, there are three words that mean love: agape, which means to create a value for a loved one, eros, which is a sexual meaning of love, and philia, which is the affectionate feeling towards friends and family. When one thinks of a “best friend” this feeling of love is sort of an understood concept whereas the word friendship refers to the relationship between the two people.

When using the Greek terms, one could get confused when the topic of a boyfriend/ girlfriend or spousal relationship is the topic. Both the word eros and philia could come in to play. Obviously in relationships such as this there is a sexual attraction, but there is also a “best friend” kind of mentality. As goes the plot of every romantic comedy ever in the history of ever.

The last post discussed the support and respect between friends, and I think that the combination of these two things is what makes the love show. Take for example say, Ash and Pikachu. They were very dependent on each other. Pikachu needed Ash for food and nourishment, and Ash needed Pikachu for companionship, to get him out of shit that he got himself into, and to have someone around that would be willing to say “Pika” all the time. Several other references are made to this type of relationship throughout pop culture. One that might not be thought of as “loving” would be between Captain Jack Sparrow and Will Turner in the Pirates of the Caribbean movies. Their friendship stared on the basis of need. Will needed someone that could help him save Elizabeth( Jack was the only potential candidate) and Jack needed someone to get him out of jail where he would have quickly been hung. Throughout the first movie, Jack becomes more convinced of Will’s abilities, and Will realizes Jack actually is a good pirate( whatever that means). The list of examples could go on and on.

The love between friends is not often stated until times of distress, but it is always apparent. If a friend is going into the military, you might not have ever expressed in words that you love him or her, but when you stick up for someone it is a representation of love. Any time a person undergoes hardships in their life, it is the love from their friends that pulls them through. This goes back to the “ the whole is more than the sum of its parts” quote. Imagine what you would rate your own self worth if you took out the love of your friends.

Jared Khan. Midterm Post (Part 3 of 3). Section 11

Marxism vs. Capitalism

Marxism is the economic and social system characterized by public ownership of production, exchange, and distribution. It was created by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx and Engels created Marxism in order to solve the problem of class struggles. Karl Marx suggested that a socialist revolution would occur after capitalism collapsed. Marxism focused on solving the problem that capitalism created, which was that the majority of conflict throughout society was due to private ownership of land, food, and money. Marxism would eventually lead to Communism, which suggested that resources be equally shared. Marxism focused on creating a society in which there was no classes, meaning that everyone was equal.

Capitalism is the opposite of Marxism and is what Marx despised. It is an economic system in which private ownership and a free competitive market are the key components. Capitalism is all about profits. In this economic system, we see the different class system that we are accustomed to today. These include the working class who own the labor and the capitalists who own the production. The working class is at a disadvantage because they are only able to sell their own labor, which usually is priced by the owner of the business. Usually, the working class is only paid minimum wage, which leads to resentment. The workers have no control over the prices they receive or the products produced. The capitalists are focused on one thing only and that is the profits they are making.

While Marxism focuses on treating everyone equally, Capitalism focuses more on survival of the fittest. Capitalism creates huge class differences and conflicts because of their importance on profits. Capitalism has created huge corporations and an advanced society full of new products and technology. However, it also has distributed the majority of the money to the minority of the people.

Jared Khan. Midterm Post (Part 2 of 3). Section 11

Karl Marx was a fascinating man. He was born on May 5, 1818 in Germany. He was also a revolutionary, a political philosopher, and an economic theorist who believed that private ownership of material goods was the reason for social problems. He believed that conflict over food, money, and land could be easily solved through public ownership. He has made significant contributions to society and is most known for “The Communist Manifesto” and “Capital”. The ideas he produced also helped develop social science and the socialist political movement. Marx grew up in a well-off family. The philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians strongly attracted Marx. These ideas were presented to him at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin. After finishing the scholastic scene, he procured a job writing for the “Cologne”. This radical newspaper was only one of many Marx would soon write for. Also at this time, he started working on the theory of dialectical materialism. Next, he heads off to Paris where he encounters Engels and they work on a collection of books. Times became rough for Karl Heinrich Marx. He was exiled to Brussels. After being exiled, Marx becomes a key player in the Communist League. He would eventually move back to Cologne and establish a newspaper. Marx encountered poverty with his wife and kids when he was exiled a second time. During this time, Marx stayed diligent and continued to develop his nature of society theories. He also pondered on how to improve them. He was active in organizations such as the International Workingmen’s Association and helped campaign for socialism.

            Marx’s economic ideas came to be referred as Marxism. He believed that all societies were hindered by a class struggle and that this conflict happens between the class that owns production and the class that owns labor. So, it is quite easy to see why Marx hated capitalism. He believed that this economic system was run by the wealthy and only served their benefit, but in time it would collapse and socialism would rise. Communism would replace socialism after that and there would be a classless society. Also, Marx was extremely radical calling for a revolutionary uprising against the system. Russia would be the first nation to use Marxist ideas and the People’s Republic of China would also use his ideas. Karl Marx was one of the most significant figures in history.

Jared Khan. Midterm Post (Part 1 of 3). Section 11

Adam smith is one of the most significant and influential men in history. He was born on June 5, 1723 at Kirkcaldy. After his father died only two months before his birth, he had a close connection to his mother. Adam smith had some crazy moments in his life including being kidnapped when he was an infant. However, he was eventually rescued. He attended the University of Glasgow when he was at the age of 14. Here at this college, he studied for three years and was deeply influenced by Francis Hutcheson. Smith received his Bachelor of Arts degree at the Balliol College in oxford where he spent nearly seven years. Later he would move back to Kirkcaldy to spend time studying and giving lectures. He would eventually become the professor of logic and moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow.

Eleven years after he would meet David Hume, he would write one of his most influential works, known as the “Theory of Moral Sentiments”. The main theme of this work had to do with the idea that moral principles have a social feeling or sympathy that lies as their foundation. Smith described sympathy as a common human feeling that one may experience towards another person. He stated that this feeling is due to a person’s idea of what this other person is having to confront in their life, and not so much with the emotions that we see the other person express. Adam Smith said that usually when someone has sympathy for someone it requires that person to understand the cause of the emotion that the other person is experiencing. Smith says that when making decisions and judgments, people should learn to be impartial and unbiased.

Adam Smith also wrote “The Wealth of Nations” which is his most well-known work. He published this work in 1776. It is a combination of various topics including descriptions, recommendations, and historical accounts. Smith in this book discusses Capitalism which coincides with free trade and the positive benefits that come from it. Free trade supports the supply and demand market which we are all accustomed to.

Section 9 Group 4 Hypatia

In the last class we talked about Hypatia and how important and under appreciated she is in the world of philosophy as a whole.  She isn't necessarily unappreciated because she did anything wrong, but because so little is known about her.  We can only speculate how great she would have been had she not been killed.  We agreed that she would be extremely important and that people would know her name had she not been murdered.

Factual Question:  Where was the school located that she was the head of?
A:  Alexandria

Discussion Question:  Do you feel if Hypatia had not been murdered that she would be as well known as Socrates, Aristotle, or Plato?

Kaleb Mckissick Section 008 Midterm Post parts 1-4 The idea of P.C.I.D.

To start off I dont want anyone to think Im trying to tell anyone by far how they need to live there life, or how they can achieve success I just really couldnt think of what to write and then this hit me. It was kind of a fire ball to the head idea. So the idea of P.C.I.D is based on how I feel some people become really successful in life, and how they climb to the top without completely destroying their whole image, or self. Okay so Im going to break down my concept of P.C.I.D into four parts. The first part is the point to be P... patient with everything because you cant just achieve success, fame with a instant pass, unless its the music business where you dont always have to be talented just have one hit song. The patience that you must have to become a better person is the same patience that can take the longest time of battle, and hardship, and turn them into a time to become self- intelligent to take the time to realize why you haven't reached the success that you want or why it is that you want to reach that point of success. The patience that I'm speaking of is the same success that made Job wait and have the long-suffering that he had to endure hits life being taken completely out of his hands. The long-suffering that he had to be ill, pained by blisters all over his body, to watch his family be killed, and still he had to patience to know that god was worth waiting on. The patience that Job possessed is the same thing that restored his life again. To end this portion of my blog part 1 I will state some quotes. " Beware the fury of a Patient Man" by John Dryden, " Everything comes gradually and at its appointed time" by Ovid, and finally " Genius is eternal patience", by the great Michelangelo. But sense this is Philosophy I must tie in a philosopher. "A wise man is superior to any insults which can be put upon him, and the best reply to unseemly behavior is patience and moderation." by Moliere. I think of this as Moliere stating that through all the hardships, and pains we endure it all will pay off if we just hold out and wait to see the end. 

Part 2 The idea of C...compassion. You must think back to all real successful people who gain success, and then give back to others in ways unimaginable. The person that stands out in my mind is Oprah, i think of her because she was born, and raised in Tennessee lived in public housing, and made it to the top of daytime television, and became one of the richest if not the richest women in america, and the world. And though she is at the top of her game in every way possible Oprah still finds the time to give back, and truly be compassionate to other people in america, and over-seas where she has started a school for young girls in Africa where they may not have received the education they need to become successful, women of their country, and in the world. The idea of compassion really boils down to a person deciding that they will help others with what little or big financing or abilities they might have. But not only do you have to have the compassion for others but for most you must have compassion for yourself. The only way to truly be able to show compassion to others is to accept it in your own life for yourself. The definition of Compassion is a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the suffering. So how can you truly help someone who is suffering if your suffering from things yourself. To listen to the words of the great buddist theorist, Ane Pema Chodron who believes in compassion being a way of life, and more than just a emotion but a way to become enlightened, and a source meditation to help ones own life. I must say I agree with her to extent that it is a way to a source of enlightenment, and becoming a better person. I feel that without compassion people become non-human in the aspect that you become detached from the emotional aspect that we are made to become success, and made to help ourselves, and others to become better. 

Part 3 The idea of I....intelligence. You must be intelligent in all aspects of life. You cant just believe that things will fall into place all the time it is intelliegent to always have a back-up plan or two in all situations. I dont belive that successful indiiviuals get to success by just going out on a leap of faith in everything that they do. Its just silly to belive that Steve Jobs, or Bill Gates just did everything on the idea that everything will fall into place. No all intelligent business men have plans for years, and never stop thinking on how they can improve their ideas, and motives for the best outcome(s) possible. I know that intelligence is actually the most important topic in my whole post because without intelligence we cant make a successful plan of attack to pursue our goals, and you have no way to know what is your best interest if you don't take the time to sit, and really think. Use your intelligence to the best of its abilities to pursue, and achieve what goals you can achieve. The American Philosopher Howard Gardner believes that we have a Multitude of Intelligence, and that we have a array of different intelligence for every aspect of. So which aspect of life are we using to become successful in its own.   

Part 4 The Idea of D... Determination and hard work. The defintion of Determinism is the philosophical idea that every event or state of affairs, including every human decision and action, is the inevitable and necessary consequence of antecedent states of affairs. We must really think the idea that this states is that for everything you do you have the possibiolity to make it work, or fail. We have the ability to become successful in everything we do. We have the abilities to realize that life gives us hardships to see if we have the determination to pursue or goals, and dreams and fight for them until we recieved the life we want. The idea that I think of when i say Determination or Determinism is not just a idea of justchure but a way of life. The people fight for their dreams and goals usually become the world leaders who run the country, and the world the people who know that to become the best you must pursue, and work for all that you want to achieve, and then it will be earned, and taken by your own hands. The idea of determinism is acceptable to everyone, and ready to be achieved.

Sec. 8 Dylan Petry mid term post 1 Beatles and philosophy

When the Beatles reached their stardom in the sixties the U.S. government was in question of having traders in the white house and the world was in the Cold War. People needed something or someone to help them escape from reality. When the Beatles released "Please Please Me" album in 1963, the album clearly showed that people needed this. It was number one album in the U.K. For thirty weeks. To me the "Please Please Me" album was saying that we need to stick together so that as a world we could make each other prosper or end war. To fast forward a little bit to the "Let It Be" album. By this time the Beatles had become one of the best bands off all time. To me personally I think that this is the best album that the Beatles came up with. I feel like the song "Let it Be" explains so much on how everyone should just let things happen because their is most likely a reason for that happening. In the sone Paul McCartney says, "And in my hour of darkness she is standing right infront of me speaking words of wisdom, let it be, let it be." To me this is saying that even when life has you down, listen and love your faith and know that there is a purpose for everything. I can personally relate this to me. When my cousin died a few years ago, we were very close and when he died I listened to "Let it Be" and I knew that everything happens for a reason because it was like a year later that my cousin, who was big into drugs and doing stupid things, decided that he was going to. Join the marines and i think in June he leaving to go to basic.

Plato's Repulic Mid-term Post

Corbin Hendrixson

Mr. Phil

Introduction to Philosophy

29 February 2012

Plato’s Society

            Plato (427-347 BC) was a very influential and creative thinker that has influenced the efficiency of our society operates by questioning the efficiency its operation when during his time. When reading Passion for Wisdom, I read about Plato’s opinion upon how society should operate, I became interested and decided to do more research for myself. Socrates, Plato’s mentor, was persecuted by the government and the church because of his preaching that alluded that the questions of life could also be explained through science and not only through religion. This experience probably influenced Plato to think that all modern forms of government are corrupt and the only way for true justice, both for society and for the individual, is through philosophy. He began to question the people in power and their inability to accept that their ideas may be wrong.  He is most well-known for his “major work in political theory, where he believed that society can enjoy posterity and harmony only if its people work in the class according to their natural abilities” (Solomon p 38). From this statement, we can see that Plato believed that not all men were created equal therefore would be no democracy in his society; I did not let that deter my interest. The more research I did the more that I started to understand Plato’s vision if human-kind decided or needed to make a more efficient human society.

Plato loved to show the problems with society through examples and stories. His most famous analogy was from his book, The Republic, in which he described man as being chained to the wall of the cave, with his face against the wall. The shadows that are casted on the wall is all that the men can see, therefore it is what they believe as reality. Then one of them, a philosopher, turns his head around to see the source of the shadows and even walks out into the sun where he can see the real reality of the world we live in. Even though the shadows are real, they are just a reflection of what is more real. Most likely this man would run back into the cave to tell his fellow man how his world was impoverished and it is inferior to the reality. Would these men then turn and kill this man for telling them that their world lacks the perfect Forms of virtue, justice and courage? Plato reference this to his mentor’s persecution and seems to be a major influence when he created his ideal society. A society that does not cater to individuals or to individual interest, but one in which the individual and individual interest are subordinate to the common good (Solomon p 36). Plate also wanted to employ censorship of art to those that only promote appropriate social behaviors and attitudes. There would be no private owning of land and parents are would not be the main providers of virtues, discipline and education but the state would.  Plato believed that in order for this society to be successful, the least citizen most be considered just as important as the greatest.

Plato saw individual human-beings are not self-sufficient therefore, individuals should come together in order to obtain the genuine necessities of life. He thought that each individual had a place or a job that they could do very well however it will vary depending on what abilities that they have. A man’s value is dependent on the value that his job has on society therefore it is inevitable that a social class or “divisions of the State” to be formed (Grube p 78). He thought it was important that the head of state should not be an average or mediocre man. Instead, society should be led by those that are very wise and are good men that know best and have insight to virtue, “philosopher of kings.” "Until philosophers rule as kings or those who are now called kings and leading men genuinely and adequately philosophize, that is, until political power and philosophy entirely coincide, while the many natures who at present pursue either one exclusively are forcibly prevented from doing so, cities will have no rest from evils,... nor, I think, will the human race." (Republic 473c-d) He saw that these divisions that are factors in our society were influenced by the modes of nature. He saw three divisions, philosopher-kings-philosophers, warriors, and the people or mercahants. Plato called the highest class “rulers” because they were the men of wisdom that governed over society. These would be “kings of philosophers” that I spoke of previously and they are responsible of making decisions that effect the whole society. The second division is warriors who are responsible for the protection of  society while the last division would be the merchants or the come people that would do their individual jobs obediently and work on primiarly satisfying their apatite whatever it might be. His reasoning of the three divisions is based on his observation that man has a threefold divisions of intelligence (the rulers), courage (the warriors), and appetite (the common people). Plato observed that some people listen primarily with their head while others have an aggressive disposition that governed by the heart through passion. The last classes, people that he saw as inferior, acts to simply feed their appetites and he believed they were governed by their liver (Kemerling). Even though Plato was for equality between people, even men and women, he still saw people as being inferior and superior based on skills that they did or did not possess.

He also believes that everyone should have an opportunity to an education and that people should start education at a very young age in order to awake the individual to their natural position. The natural position is the position of a person’s moral goodness. To put it another way, Plato thought that people should be educated to work any way that is best to feed his moral goodness. He planned that the education should start with by having a child play and strengthen his body; from three to six, the child should learn religious stories; from seven to ten, he should learn flexibility and agility through gymnastics; from the ages of ten to thirteen, reading and writing; from fourteen to sixteen, playing instruments and music; from sixteen to eighteen, mathematics; from eighteen to twenty, he should become educated in military strategy and drills; from twenty to thirty-five, those that have shown to excel in these categories and are scientific and philosophical gifted should stay in school and continue to learn. Others would join the warrior class and practice military exercise and strategy while others will be placed in the lowest class. (source) Plato believed that this education system would reveal what category a person belongs to. Some give criticism of Plato because if we all have different abilities then why do we have to go through the same education system? He saw that people will not know what their natural abilities are unless he had the opportunity to try everything.

The area where Plato got most of his praise is his structuralization of the government and society. Plato believed that the rulers should own no private property, live and eat together at government expense, and should earn no salary greater than the necessary to supply their most basic needs. With these rules, it would eliminate anyone who would have a motive to seeking power of leadership in order to gain a higher social status or wealth. Those that have been chosen to be rulers would govern mainly from a concern to seek the welfare of the state and all of its citizens. Plato’s society would be successful because the rulers would have the virtue of wisdom and the ability to comprehend reality and make impartial judgments about the problems at hand (Kemerling). The warriors would have to possess the virtue of courage by being able to carry out their task even when in the face of danger without regard for personal risk. The rest of the people that live in society, would follow the leaders of the state instead of pursuing their own personal goals therefore Plato says they should practice the virtue of moderation from being loyal to your spouse to not abusing drugs and alcohol (Kemerling). Some may begin to ask themselves if individuals could be happy within this society with the different divisions. Plato says “happiness is not for the privileged class of citizens but for the city-state as a whole.”( Solomon p 37)

Ultimately, in Plato’s society, everyone is equal, everyone is family. Imagine a world where you did not have to experience racial or sexist prejudice. You are judge strictly on the talents that you have and even if you do not have any talents then you are still just as important to the man that has all the talents. Everyone works together to try to make life easier on them and everyone that is around them. Parents would treat every child like their child when it comes to praising and disciplining. Plato’s idea of utopia is solid theoretically however I do not believe that it would be possible in this day in age. His theory is centered on the idea that people have the ability to be selfless and act on the behalf of others instead for their own benefit. If there was a catastrophic event that sent humanity back in time, then his idea of constructing a society should be remembered. Possibly, in the future we can develop a society similar to Plato’s where there is equality for all demographics and individuals act for the benefit of the whole.


·         Kemerling, Garth. "Plato: The Republic 1-4." Philosophy Pages. 12 Nov. 2011. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2g.htm>.

·         Solomon, Robert C., and Kathleen Marie. Higgins. A Passion for Wisdom: A Very Brief History of Philosophy. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. Print.

·         Grube, G.M., trans. Plato: Republic. Ed. C.D. Reeve. United States: Hackett, 1992. Print.

Midterm post

                                                                            The Beast
The Beast in Disney’s classic movie Beauty and the Beast was Possessed by a curse.  This curse took away

the man’s human state of being and turned him into an animal like state which covered him in fur and made him

grow intimidating fangs as well as a temper that was almost impossible to control.

The philosophical idea of this scenario is whether or not the curse really was a curse or rather a gift.  If it were

not for his curse, he would have never been able to make the special impression on Belle that he did after

making miraculous improvement to control his anger for her.
This is truly what caused Belle to fall in love with him.

However, if the beast was in his regular human state, would belle be attracted to him?

Would he be as humble as he was in his beast form?

Would he appreciate Belle’s persistence and patience with him?

I believe that the curse was a gift to the beast because before his curse, he had no love in his heart and was

not willing to open up to the thought of love in his life.  This being said, the beast learned not only how to

love, but also found the love of his life because of the curse.  So all in all, the beast’s curse was not a curse

after all but instead was a gift to help him learn how to love.

Dress Codes in Public Schools
     Dress codes in public schools are becoming more well known as this current generation progresses 

in their academic careers.  The question is, do the uniforms really help and why do teachers and faculty 

think that they will help improve the academic success of the school's students?  Coming from a high 

school that had a strictly enforced dress code, I can honestly say that I did see improvement within the 

overall GPA of the student body as a whole.  However, I did also see an increase in rebellion against 

the rules that the school had set for it's students.  When the overall goal of grade school is to teach 

students how to become proper adults in order for them to become ready for the outside world, I think 

that attitude towards the rules is a major role in how your life will end up after school.  For example, 

you can have brains at a very high end job but if you have the attitude of a 4 year old, no one will want 

to hire you.  I feel that if you have a great and positive attitude, however, you can learn what you need 

to, skill related, for the job that you are wishing to apply yourself to.  This is why I feel that school 

uniforms can be positive but have turned the academic struggle into a greater struggle to keep its 

students under control.

Exam questions (re-posted)

I'll change the wording when doing so will aid clarity & relevance. Some will be short answer, some T/F, some fill in the blank, some multiple choice.  Best way to study will be to re-read & think about the relevant discussions of each question topic in our texts. Worst way: memorizing Qs & As. -JPO

1. Factual Question: What is a prominent mystical tradition within Islam? Sufism

2. What are some virtues that Aristotle believed to make a person an excellent human being? Courage, Temperance, Sense of justice, Sense of humor.

3.  Where is the first place Jesus doubts God?
A: Gethsemane

4.  As an atomist, Bertrand Russell attempted to break down the complexity of the human experience and the world into what he called what? "atomic" bits

5. Fact question: What was Edmund Husserl's method of philosophical inquiry called? Phenomenology

6.  What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's book that he wrote that was published in 1921? Tractatus Logico-Philospjicus

7. What did Alfred Whitehead believe the point of Philosophy was?
To rationalize mysticism.

8. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote a famous fictional epic containing the name of a persian prophet titled?
Thus Spoke Zarathustra

9. What is utilitarianism?
A: Utilitarianism is a philosophy in which the maximization of personal happiness is the ultimate end of mankind. 

10. What does Hegel insist about knowledge?
A: It develops.

11. Who was the founder of skepticism? David Hume

12. :What is the primary player in Kants philosophy? Reason

13. What did Kant believe self was?
"The transcendental ego

14. What inspired Kant to join the Enlightenment movement? David Hume's skepticism

15. What was Descartes most famous claim? "I think, therefore I am."

16.  What is "Pantheism?"
A: Pantheism is the idea that god and the universe are one and the same.

17. : What did Thomas Aquinas define God as?
A: The Prime Mover

18.  In buhddism, What is the condition of enightment without misery known as? Nirvana

19. Who was the first philosopher to come up with the idea of "atom"? Democritis

20. What was the most important virtue in society according to Confucius? Good Leadership

21.  How long ago was the first historical record of doubt?

-Nick, Group #1
1) Does Confucianism deals mainly with social concern or individual enlightenment?
Answer: social concern

2) What is the "Vedas"  in Hinduism?
Answer: Hindu, holy text

3) What 2 words define the Taoist notion of the cycle of change?
Answer: yin and yang

4) Who was known for their almost fanatic faith in reason?
 Answer: the Stoics

5) From what perspective did Paul preach?
 Answer: Gentiles

6) What does Nietzsche call the "last man"?
Answer: Übermensch

7) From what does Nietzsche believe tragedy comes?
Answer: recognition, beautification, and idealization of fate

8) What specific event started the reformation?
Answer: Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral

9) In Christianity, who composes the Holy Trinity?
Answer: Father God, Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit

10) Who believed the ideas were usful only if they have "cash value"?
Answer: William James 

-Tamara, Group #2
I went and randomly selected 5 questions. Each question came from different sections. 

1. Factual Question: How long did Pyrhho, the founder of skepticism, end up living?
A: 90 years old

2. Factual Question:  Who suggested that "all knowledge comes from the senses?" 
A:  John Locke

3. Factual Question: What is ontology?
A: The study of being

4. Factual Question:  Who stressed the spiritual importance of Nature?
A:  Emerson

5. Who used the ancient Greek story of Sisyphus pushing a rock up a mountain to prove that life is worth living?
A: Camus 

-DJuan, Group 3
This is what I thought would be our five best factual questions.

1. What is phenomenology? The study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view.
2. What is animism?  The belief that entities throughout nature are endowed with souls often thought to be the souls of ancestors who are no longer individually remembered.
3. What is a Peripatetic?
A peripatetic is a follower of the ancient philosopher Aristotle. He gave his followers this title because the word means to "wander" around, which is just what they did to hear the teachings of Aristotle.

4. Zoroastrianism is the belief of how many god(s)? one
5. What well-known philosophers helped develop the idea of atheism? Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

-Hartley, Group 4

Q: What religion did Gnosticism grow out of?

A: Judaism

2) Q: Who coined the phrase "streams of experience"?
A: William James

3) Q: What is the name of the movement that says Western philosophy has run its course?
A: Postmodernism

4) Q: Adam Smith is known as the father of what?
A: the free-enterprise system
5) Q: Karl Marx began his career as a ______________ poet and polemical ______________.
A: Romantic; journalist

-Shannon, Group 5
1.      FQ:Who was Epicureanism founded by, please?

- Epicurus
2.      Factual Q: What is another word for doctrine of names?
-       Nominalism
3.      FQ: What was the one things that all Enlightenment philosophers agreed on?
-They believed in reason
       4.   What year did Vico die? 1744, The same year that Herder was born.
       5.    Who was Jonathan Edwards?  A New England Puritan minister.
       6. Who said, "Man is the measure of all things."?  Protagoras.

-Nathan, Group 6

Sec. #9
Question: Who is known the "father of modern philosophy"?
Answer: Descartes

Question: Charles Darwin pioneered which major theory?
Answer: Evolution

Question: What does 'Laissez faire' mean?
Answer: "Leave us alone".

Question: Who developed the philosophy of secular humanism?
Answer:Ralph Waldo Emerson

Question: What do Buddhists call the it when someone achieves enlightenment and the end of misery?
Answer: Nirvana

Question: Who developed the concept of the 'Ubermensch' or 'Superman'?
Answer: Friedrich Nietzsche

-Frank, Group 1
1)  What is the difference between Polytheism, Monotheism, and Henotheism?
-Monotheism is belief in one and no other gods, Polytheism is belief equally (for the most part) in multiple gods, and Henotheism is belief in god as supreme above all others, but the acceptance of other gods as well, although on a lower level.

2) Which of the 3 schools of thought, Confucianism, Taoism, and Mohism focused on the paternalistic society?

3) What is a good word or words that would summarize or describe the ideals of the Stoics?
-indifference or apathy

4) According to the majority of Western religious philosophers during the Middle Ages, which required more emphasis, faith or reason?
-Faith was primary amongst most, but reason was not to shunned or thrown aside, especially if it encouraged one's faith.

5) On what two main points did Spinoza & Leibniz agree and disagree?
-They both agreed that all things happened for a reason and that we couldn't always see the ultimate reason for the sake of our own limited perspective. Their disagreements began with that Spinoza believed that all things were made of the same fundamental substance, namely G-d Him/Her/Itself. Leibniz contrasted by saying all things were made of innumerable simple substances, called monads, that were completely independent and self-contained, not truly or effectively interacting with each other, but simply carrying out a "pre-destined harmony" instituted by G-d.

6) What was the name of Hegel's 1st and most likely greatest work
-The Phenomenology of Spirit

7) What was Nietsche's main problem with or gripe against Christianity?
-He saw the Greek heritage of the West to be in conflict with its Judeo-Christian background and rejected their synthesis within Christianity.

8) What was Freud's concept that centered on the idea of putting one's perverse and/or immoral thoughts deep down into the subconscious mind?

9) In Paul's theology, what were most humans incapable of doing and with what did they need G-d's, namely Jesus', help?
-Humans were unable to earn their salvation, their passage into heaven, and thereby needed G-d's grace & mercy  through the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross to attain it .

-Jeremy, Group 2
1) What did Pythagoras believe make up the cosmos?

2)What similarities do the respective theories of Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes hold?
     They were all materialists.

3)Who was the first known skeptic?

4)Who was the most noteworthy figure of the early Scholastic Period?
     Saint Anselm

5)Who was the first person to start the tradition of empericism?
     John Locke

6)What teaching/religion did Schopenhauer agree with most?

-Alden, Group 3
Who was the central figure of twentieth century pragmatism?
John Dewey

What was the theory Kierkegaard started?

Who were the two most famous and influential philosophers of the French Enlightenment?
Voltaire and Rousseau

Who wrote the "95 Theses"?
Martin Luther

What is animism?
The belief that entities throughout nature are endowed with souls

-Brian, Group 4
Group 5??

Sec. #11

1)      When did Buddhism and Jainism appear in India? Between the 5th and 6th century BCE.
2)      Where was Kant from? East Prussia
3)      Which philosopher was best known for is “utilitarian” beliefs? John Stuart Mill
4)      What was Descartes's thesis that the mind and body are separate substances? "Cartesian Dualism."
5)      Why where the Greek gods so human like? Because the Athenians wanted to justify their misdeeds by using the gods and their own personal misdeeds as excuses.
Once again I apologize for the lateness.
Brittany, Group1
1. Who was the most known philosopher of the Utilitarian belief? [John Stuart Mill]

2. What was Hegel's greatest book? [The Phenomenology of Spirit] 

3. What is a major theme of the Stoics? ["Life is tough"]

4. Who does the book Doubt refer to as a well known Cynic? [Diogenes]

5. Who was the first philosopher in the west? [Thales]

-Emily, Group 2
--What philosophy did Emerson create?
A: Secualar humanism.

--According to Democritus, what is the logic of atomism?
A: That everything ages and decays.

--Where does Skepticism trace it roots to?
A: Pyrrho.

--What philosopher did Schopenhauer strongly dislike?
A: Hegel.

--Like Hegel, what did Emerson believe humanity is linked by?
A: A collective "oversoul" that gives intuitive moral guidance.

--What philosopher did Thomas Jefferson study and admire?
A: Epictetus.

--What marked the high point of theology in medieval Christian thought between approximately 1050 and 1350?
 A: Scholasticism 

-Timecia, Group 3
Why was the Scale of Doubt quiz at the beginning of Jennifer Hecht's book?  To shake off modern habits and both vitalize the issues by pulling them apart and help stimulate readers among their peers.

Epicurus believed there were gods out in the universe somewhere, but why did he tell us not to fear them?  Because they were not paying any attention to us. (We intend for this to be a factual question that can be answered discussion form.)

What were Zoroastrians sometimes called?  Fire Worshippers.

What did Socrates believe was the most valuable of all possessions?  Virtue.

What were the selling of forgiveness called and who's thesis state this was corrupt?  Indulgences and Martin Luther.

 Eryn, Group 4
1. Who was Plato's greatest student and formed their own school? (Answer: Aristotle) 

2. Zarathustra explained suffering as the consequence of a war between what?

      (answer: two twin spirits.)

3. What was central to Plato's philosophy? (ANSWER- THEORY OF FORMS)

4.  What does tlamatinime stand for? (Answer: Knowers of things)

5. What was James mostly interested in? (answer: The problems of everyday living.)

6. What are the 2 notions of African Philosophy? (Asnswer: Tribalism & identity with nature)

Katie, Group 5