Up@dawn 2.0

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Study Guide for Exam 2

I've filled the answers to the best of my ability, but please post answers to the ones that are blank.

Quiz 1 (3/4)
·       How does Spinoza differ from Descartes on the question of "substance"?
o   Spinoza says there is only one substance, and that is God. Descartes believes in two kinds of substance, thinking and extended.
·       Spinoza rejects free will, but still thinks we can be free "in proportion as" what?
o   Infinity
·       How does Spinoza differ from the Stoics?
o   He does not object to all emotion, just “passions”
·       What can Russell not accept in Spinoza's view of misfortune?
o   The idea that events become different by absorption in a whole.
·       Who caricatured Leibniz as Doctor Pangloss?
·       How does Leibniz differ from Descartes and Spinoza on the question of "substance"?
·       How might a Manichaean retort to Leibniz?
·       What kinds of walks are "essential to alternate"?
o   Urban and country walks
·       What kind of mind achieves the greatest discoveries and joys on a stroll?
o   Child-like/Innocent

Quiz 2 (12/13)
·       What two kinds of perceptions did Hume distinguish?
o   Impressions and Ideas
·       What is the importance for metaphysics, theology, and knowledge of Hume's discussion of the Self?
o   Gets rid of the last surviving use of substance. Abolishes all supposed knowledge of the soul. Category of subject/object is not fundamental.
·       What does Hume say it means for something to cause something else?
o   2 objects are constantly conjoined.
·       What was the subject of Rousseau's prize-winning essay?
o   Have arts and sciences contributed to purify morals
·       How does Rousseau describe the human condition in the opening of his Social Contract?
o   Man is born free
·       What does Rousseau say should happen to those who disobey the "general will"?
o   Shall be forced to obey
·       What is distinctive about walking at age 16 or 20?
o   Only desire was to reach the end of the journey
·       What was Rousseau trying to identify in himself, in his long walks?
o   The natural man
·       Walking is reconciling yourself to what?
o   Your finiteness

Quiz 3 (17/18)
·       What did Kant do every day with such predictable regularity that his neighbors were said to have set their watches by it?
o   His constitutional
·       What are space and time, for Kant, if not concepts?
o   Subjection; supplies the concepts of how we understand experience
·       What famous phrase did Kant introduce in his Metaphysic of Morals to distinguish his view from utilitarianism?
o   “A completely isolate metaphysic of morals, which is not mixed with any theology or physics or hyperphysics.”
·       Who was the Galileo and Newton of the 19th century?
o   Darwin
·       What did Hegel consider unreal or illusory?
o   Separateness
·       What does Russell say freedom meant for Hegel?
o   The right to obey the law
·       What concerns did Kant share with Nietzsche?
o   The importance of a walk, and what he should eat
·       What impresses Gros about Kant?
o   Iron discipline

Quiz 4 (19/20)
·       To whom does Schopenhauer most appeal?
o   Artistic and literary people in search of a believable philosophy (young romantics)
·       What did Schopenhauer do for two hours every day?
o   Walked his dog
·       What did Schopenhauer consider the "thing-in-itself"?
o   The will
·       With what did Nietzsche accuse Socrates of corrupting the youth of Athens?
o   Democratic moral bias (democracy)
·       What view of J.S. Mill's did Nietzsche consider "vulgar"?
o   If things are good for anyone, it’s good for everyone
·       What human possibility does Russell say did not occur to Nietzsche?
o   A person should generally feel universal love
·       How was walking different for Nietzsche than for Kant?
o   N- not a distraction from work, but a necessity for work
·       Who wrote the first philosophic treatise on walking?
o   Thoreau
·       Why does Gros say you should you replace reading the news with a walk?
o   Rather than focusing on change, walking focuses on the new

Quiz 5 (24/25)
·       How did Bentham define good and bad?
o   Good is pleasure/happiness and bad is plain (to assign numbers)
·       What fallacious argument does Russell attribute to John Stuart Mill?
o   “Pleasure is the only thing desired, therefore it is the only thing desirable”
·       How does Nietzsche's ethic differ from utilitarianism?
o   Holds that only a minority of the population are ethical (few over many)
·       What was Hegel's influence on Marx, and how did Marx totally disagree with Hegel?
o   Marx- believed in evolution of species and society, disagreed in driving force- matter not spirit, dialectical materialist
·       What did Marx say is philosophy's real task?
o   Alter the world
·       What does walking sometimes let you feel, momentarily?
o   The elemental- the primary and primitive layer

Quiz 6 (26/27)
·       Russell credits James's book on what subject with "the highest possible excellence"?
·       Russell says James persuaded him of the truth of what doctrine?
·       What is the function of philosophy, according to James?
·       In what area does Russell say Dewey's influence was profound?
·       Whose philosophy influenced Dewey in his youth, and how did he move away from it?
·       What was Peirce's definition of truth? What concept did Dewey substitute for truth?
·       What did Montaigne say the mind needs for stimulation?

·       What is a lung-gom-pa?

1 comment:

  1. (H3) Here are the page numbers for the answers where I found them in order.
    P.571, P.573, P.575, P.580, P.581, P.583-4, P.590| P.165, P.166

    P.6055 P.610, P.625, P.632, P. 647-48

    P.660, P.663, P.665, P.687, P. 695| P.66, P.73, P.187

    P.154(I found this one in Walking meant to be found in Western Philo.), P.707, P.710, P.725, P.731, P.737| P.154, P.157

    P.753, P.754, P.755, P.761, P.62, P.767| P.18, P.88, P.101

    P.775, P.778, P.780, P.784-85, P.784| P.191

    P.811, P.812, P.816, P.819, P.820-21, P.824| P.208, P.216