1. How did Bentham define good and bad?
2. What fallacious argument does Russell attribute to John Stuart Mill?
3. How does Nietzsche's ethic differ from utilitarianism?
4. What was Hegel's influence on Marx, and how did Marx totally disagree with Hegel?
5. What did Marx say is philosophy's real task?
6. What does walking sometimes let you feel, momentarily?
- Do people always pursue their own pleasure? Should they? Is there a conflict between personal happiness and the greater good?
- Does "ought" imply "can"? 778
- Do our desires, for example the desire for food, come before or after "the calculation of pleasures and pains"? 779
- Darwin was a liberal, implying that he was not a Social Darwinist in favor of a "survival of the fittest" approach to society and ethics. Why do you think so many people still think he was?
- Do you expect to see a social revolution on behalf of "wage-earners" in America in your lifetime? Why or why not?
- Do you believe progress is human affairs is inevitable? Is it possible? Is it possible that future humans will regress to a more primitive and less ethical way of life? What factors do you think will determine the future of humanity?
- Do you agree with Russell that questions concerning competition, property, and state ownership of land and capital are not "matters for philosopihy"? 789
- What did Thoreau mean about "killing time"? Do you kill time? 190
1. John Stuart Mill criticized his father's friend _____'s version of Utilitarianism, saying it failed to distinguish higher and lower _____ of pleasure. (quantities, qualities)
2. What was the title of Mill's 1859 defense of "giving each person space to develop as they saw fit" so long as they do no harm in the process?
3. What did Mill think happens to views and opinions that go unchallenged? What do they turn into?
4. (T/F) Charles Darwin defended evolution by natural selection in a debate at the Oxford Museum of Natural History in 1860.
5. (T/F) Darwin called evolution by natural selection "the single best idea anyone has ever had."
6. What do we know that Darwin didn't, that makes evolution more than "just a hypothesis"?
BONUS: Who said "What do I care about J.S. Mill? I only want to lead a quiet life."
1. Is it better to be a contented "piggish" person, or a discontented intellectual? Better Socrates dissatisfied or a pig satisfied? Are some pleasures inherently higher in quality than others? Which ones?
2. Mill would say we don't have a right to interfere with others' preferred pleasures, though we may have a duty to criticize them. Might such criticism encroach on someone's "space," should they "see fit" to live a life of slovenly pleasure?
3. Do you ever conclude a statement of belief with the caveat that it's "just my opinion"? What do you think Mill would say about that?
4. How do you respond to the idea that our humanity is demeaned by biological association with other species? What do you think of Bishop Wilberforce's rhetorical debate question? What's your answer to those who ask "why are there still monkeys"?
5. What do you think is the best idea of all time?
6. "The whole subject of God is too profound for the human intellect." Agree or disagree? Should everybody just stop talking about it?
*Mill & Darwin quotes