Monday, November 30, 2015
Life and Language 2/3 (Section 8)
You can look at my previous post here
In his first published “book”, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Ludwig Wittgenstein defined the relationship between language and reality. He wrote his notes for this book during WWI and finished it when he was held prisoner. The book is not based on [arguments] but more of declaring things that are merely self-evident and shows why the logic of our language is misunderstood. There are 7 basic propositions with sublevels connecting each together.
1. The world is all that is the case.
1.1 The world is the totality of facts, not of things.
1.2 The world divides into facts.
2. What is the case—a fact—is the existence of states of affairs.
2.01 A state of affairs is a combination of objects (things).
2.02 Objects are simple.
2.03 In a state of affairs objects fit into one another like the links of a chain.
2.04 The totality of existing states of affairs is the world.
2.05 The totality of existing states of affairs also determines which states of affairs do not exist.
2.06 The existence (positive) and non-existence (negative) of states of affairs is reality.
2.1 We picture facts to ourselves.
2.2 The picture has the logical form of representation in common with what it depicts.
3. A logical picture of facts is a thought.
3.1 In a proposition a thought finds an expression that can be perceived by the senses.
3.2 In propositions thoughts can be so expressed that to the objects of the thoughts correspond the elements of the
3.3 Only the proposition has sense; only in the context of a proposition has a name meaning.
3.4 A proposition determines a place in logical space. The existence of that place is guaranteed by the mere existence of the
constituents—by the existence of the proposition.
3.5 A propositional sign, applied and thought out, is a thought.
4. A thought is a proposition with a sense.
Most philosophical propositions are nonsensical. We cannot answer them, we can only point out that they are nonsense and the deepest problems are not really problems.
4.01 A proposition is a model of reality.
4.022 A proposition shows its sense and says that things do so stand.
4.1 Propositions represent the existence and non-existence of states of affairs.
4.2 The sense of a proposition is its agreement and disagreement with possibilities of existence and non-existence of states
4.21 The simplest proposition, the elementary proposition, asserts the existence of atomic facts.
4.3 Truth-possibilities of elementary propositions mean possibilities of existence and non-existence of states of affairs.
4.4 A proposition is an expression of agreement and disagreement with truth-possibilities of elementary propositions.
4.46 Among the possible groups of truth-conditions there are two extreme cases.
4.5 The general form of a proposition is: This is how things stand.
5. A proposition is a truth-function of elementary propositions.
5.1 Truth functions can be arranged in a series.
5.2 The structure of propositions stand in internal relations to one another.
5.3 All propositions are the result of truth-operations on elementary propositions.
5.4 There are no ‘logical objects’ or ‘logical constants’.
5.5 Every truth-function is a result of successive applications to elementary propositions of the operation ‘ (…..T)(x….)’
5.6 The limits of my language are the limits of my world.
6. The general form of a proposition is the general form of a truth-function [p, ξ, N (ξ)].
6.1 The propositions of logic are tautologies.
6.2 Mathematics is a logical method. The propositions of mathematics are equations.
6.3 Exploration of logic means the exploration of everything that is subject to law—outside
of logic everything is accidental.
6.4 All propositions are of equal value.
6.5 When an answer cannot be put into words, neither can the question, therefore riddle does not exist.
6.51 Skepticism is not irrefutable, but obviously nonsensical when it tries to raise doubts where no questions can be asked. For doubt can only exist where a question exists, a question only where an answer exists, and an answer only where something can be said.
6.52 We feel that even when all possible scientific questions have been answered, the problems of life remain completely untouched. Of course, there are then no questions left, and this itself is the answer.
6.521 The solution of the problem of life is seen in the vanishing of the problem.
7. What we can not speak about we must pass over in silence.