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Thursday, April 20, 2017

Final Exam Study Guide #8 By Alexus Uqdah and Kianna Cooper

Feb 28-DR 13

1. In the Hellenistic period Western philosophy came to be seen as what? What did the Hellenistic philosophies all praise, and what did they all see as the key to wisdom?

2. Of what later philosophy was Epicureanism the main ancestor?

3. What central problem of philosophy was Epicurus apparently the first to state?

4. From what did the Stoics take their name?

5. What was the one thing the Stoics thought the Epicureans were right about?

6. How does Gottlieb say the Stoics were inconsistent?

Mar 2, LH 3, DR 13 (p.336-357)
1. What was the main teaching of skepticism? ("Scepticism" in Br. spelling)

2. How did Pyrrho say you could become free from all worry? Does Warburton think this would work for most of us?

3. How does modern skepticism differ from its ancient predecessor?

4. Why does Gottlieb think Pyrrho must not have been as radically skeptical as legend has it?

5. What did David Hume say about too much skepticism?

6. What did "throwing in the sponge" mean, in Sextus Emiricus's story?
March 14
DR 358-390

1. What happened in AD 529, and why is it a convenient milestone for philosophy?

2. What did medieval Christians "know" that Aristotle said wasn't so?

3. What's the one question almost everyone has heard about medieval philosophy? What's the obvious answer?

4. What was "the strangest document in the history of philosophy" and how did it catch the spirit of its time?

5. What was Plotinus's philosophy called, and what was its goal?

6. What did Proclus see as the job of philosophy?

March 21

DR 14 (390-425); LH 6-8. 

1. What religion did Augustine espouse before his conversion to Christianity, and how did it account for evil?

2. To what did Augustine return, that most of the first philosophers had rejected?

3. What form does Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy take, what does it never explicitly mention, and how does it account for the compatibility of real choice with the existence of an omniscient deity?

4. How did Anselm define God, and what is his famous "proof" called?

5. Who was Heloise's boyfriend, what was his greatest misfortune, and how did he go beyond established traditions?

6. Who wrote Guide for the Perplexed? What did he try to do in it?

7. Who had a "razor," and what was it for?

8. Who declared that there are other worlds, and was burned at the stake?


9. What did Augustine famously pray for?

10. Whose First Cause Argument, echoing Aristotle, said a never-ending series of causes and effects would lead to an unacceptable what?

March 23

DR 15, LH 9-10

1. What effect did the new Renaissance humanist movement have on philosophy?

2. What did Vespucci mean when he said New Worlders were more Epicurean than Stoic?

3. What "prophet of modern science" nonetheless wanted to "build on astrology, alchemy, and magic"? Why?

4. What 15th century "remarkable development" gave rise to mass literacy?

5. What did Luther refuse to accept? What was the essence of Protestantism?

6. Whose cousin first mentioned "scientific method" and said it could support only "limited claims about the appearances"? 

7. Who "revamped Epicurus' picture of the universe" to make it more Bible-friendly? How?

8. With what metaphor did Descartes propose to support the new scientific worldview of Galileo?


9. What did Machiavelli say a leader needs to have?

130. Life outside society would be what, according to Hobbes?

Mar 28

LH 11-12
1. What state of mind, belief, or knowledge was Descartes' Method of Doubt supposed to establish? OR, What did Descartes seek that Pyrrho spurned?

2. Did Descartes claim to know (at the outset of his "meditations") that he was not dreaming?

3. What strange and mythic specter did Gilbert Ryle compare to Descartes' dualism of mind and body? ("The ____ in the ______.")

4. Pascal's best-known book is _____.
5. Pascal's argument for believing in God is called ________.
6. Pascal thought if you gamble on God and lose, "you lose ______." 

7. (T/F) By limiting his "wager" to a choice between either Christian theism or atheism, says Nigel Warburton, Pascal excludes too many other possible bets. 
BONUS QUESTIONS (See "recommended")
·                     Sarah Bakewell says Montaigne's first answer to the question "How to live?" is: "Don't worry about _____."
·                     What was Montaigne's "near death experience," and what did it teach him?
·                     Montaigne said "my mind will not budge unless _____."
·                     What pragmatic American philosopher was Descartes' "most practical critic"?
·                     (T/F) A.C. Grayling thinks that, because Descartes was so wrong about consciousness and the mind-body problem, he cannot be considered a historically-important philosopher.
·                     What skeptical slogan did Montaigne inscribe on the ceiling of his study?

Apr 4

1. Spinoza's view, that God and nature (or the universe) are the same thing, is called _______.

2. If god is _____, there cannot be anything that is not god; if _____, god is indifferent to human beings.

3. Spinoza was a determinist, holding that _____ is an illusion.

4. According to John Locke, all our knowledge comes from _____; hence, the mind of a newborn is a ______. 
5. Locke said _____ continuity establishes personal identity (bodily, psychological); Thomas Reid said identity relies on ______ memories, not total recall.
6. Who kicked a stone to try and refute Berkeley's idealism?
7. Bishop George Berkeley was a metaphysical idealist because he believed all that exist are____; he was an immaterialist because he denied that ______ exists; he was an _______ because he said all knowledge comes from direct personal experience.
8. Esse est percipi means what?

9. What was Pope's way of saying that this is the best of all possible worlds? What German philosopher agreed, with his Principle of Sufficient Reason? What French writer disagreed, writing an acerbic philosophical novel?

10. What cataclysmic event did Voltaire use to make his case against Leibniz's optimism?

11. To what "faith" did Pangloss cling?

12. What does "cultivate our garden" mean?

13. Whose friends told him not to publish what during his lifetime?

14. What was Hume's view of miracles? What view did he share with Epicurus?

15. Who said we're born free but find ourselves "in chains"? How did he say we could break them? (By embracing what?)

16. What's the difference between the Will of All and the General Will?
BONUS: Who said “the sources of art in human experience will be learned by him who sees how the tense grace of the ball-player infects the onlooking crowd"?
April 6 Quiz
LH 19-23
1. Kant said we can know the ____ but not the ____ world. 

2. How does synthetic knowledge differ from analytic knowledge?

3. What was Kant's great insight?

4. What, according to Kant, is irrelevant to morality?

5. Kant said you should never ___, because ___. Kant called the principle that supports this view the ____ _____.

6. Who formulated the Greatest Happiness principle? What did he call his method? Where can you find him today?

7. Who created a thought experiment that seems to refute Bentham's view of how pleasure relates to human motivation?

8. What did Hegel mean when he spoke of the "owl of Minerva"? What did he think had been reached in his lifetime?

9. What Kantian view did Hegel reject?

10. What is Geist? When did Hegel say it achieved self-knowledge?

11. What "blind driving force" did Schopenhauer allege to pervade absolutely everything (including us)?

12. What did Schopenhauer say could help us escape the cycle of striving and desire?
Apr 11
LH 24-27

1. How did Mill disagree with Bentham about pleasure?

2. What view did Mill defend in On Liberty?

3. What's the benefit to society of open discussion, according to Mill, and what's wrong with being dogmatic?

4. Who did Bishop Wilberforce debate at Oxford in 1860?

5. The single best idea anyone ever had was what, according to whom?

6. What scientific developments since Darwin's time establish evolution by natural selection as more than just a theory or hypothesis?

7. Who was the Danish Socrates, and what was most of his writing about?

8. Why is faith irrational, according to Nigel Warburton?

9. What is "the subjective point of view"?

10. Why was Karl Marx angry? How did he think the whole of human history could be explained?

11. What was Marx's "vision"?

12. What did Marx call religion?

April 13  LH 28-30

1. What's the point of James's squirrel story?

2. Who said truth is what we would end up with if we could run all the experiments and investigations we'd like to? (And what's a word his name rhymes with?)

3. What did Bertrand Russell say about James's theory of truth?

4. What 20th century philosopher carried on the pragmatist tradition? What did he say about the way words work?

5. What did Nietzsche mean by "God is dead"? (And what's a word his name rhymes with?)

6. Where did Nietzsche think Christian values come from?

7. What is an Ubermensch, and why does Nigel find it "a bit worrying"?

8. How did Nietzsche differ from Kant but anticipate Freud?

9. What were the three great revolutions in thought, according to Freud?

10. The "talking cure" gave birth to what?

11. Why did Freud think people believe in God?

12. What was Karl Popper's criticism of Freudian psychoanalysis?

Apr 18

1. Reading whose autobiography led young Bertrand Russell to reject God? OR, What did he see as the logical problem with the First Cause Argument?


I for a long time accepted the argument of the First Cause, until one day at the age of eighteen I read _____'s Autobiography, and I there found this sentence: "My father taught me that the question 'Who made me?' cannot be answered, since it immediately suggests the further question `Who made god?'" That very simple sentence showed me, as I still think, the fallacy in the argument of the First Cause. If everything must have a cause, then God must have a cause. If there can be anything without a cause, it may just as well be the world as God, so that there cannot be any validity in that argument. It is exactly of the same nature as the Hindu's view, that the world rested upon an elephant and the elephant rested upon a tortoise; and when they said, "How about the tortoise?" the Indian said, "Suppose we change the subject." The argument is really no better than that. Why I Am Not a Christian

The idea of a barber who shaves all who don't shave themselves is a ­­­­­­­­­­­­
­­­_________ _________, a seeming contradiction that is both true and false. Another example of the same thing would be a statement like _______________. 

A.J. Ayer's _Principle, stated in his 1936 book Language, Truth and Logic, was part of the movement known as                             . 

4. Humans don't have an                    , said Jean Paul Sartre, and are in "bad faith" like the
                                who thinks of himself as completely defined by his work.

5. What was Sartre's frustrating advice to the student who didn't know whether to join the Resistance?

6. When Simone de Beauvoir said women are not born that way, she meant that they tend to accept what?

7. Which Greek myth did Albert Camus use to illustrate human absurdity, as he saw it?

-Who had a Near Death Experience his youthful philosophy would have declared "nonsense"?

- Name the faux English matrons who crossed the channel to ask Sartre about his views on freedom?

Apr 20
1    1.  What was the main message of Wittgenstein's Tractatus?

      2. What did the later Wittgenstein (of Philosophical Investigations) mean by "language games," what did he think was the way to solve philosophical problems, and what kind of language did he think we can't have?

     3. Who was Adolf Eichmann, and what did Arendt learn about him at his trial?

4. What was Arendt's descriptive phrase for what she saw as Eichmann's ordinariness?

5      5. When does science progress, according to Karl Popper, and when does it prove things?

6. What's the difference between induction and deduction?
          7. An unfalsifiable statement is not ____.

       8. What's a paradigm shift?
       9. What is a thought experiment?
      10. In Thomson's violinist thought experiment, the violinist is analogous to what?
#8- Led Zeppelin & Philosophy Read Chapter 2 

1. What does the Greek term "Rhapsode" mean?

2. What does the philosopher Immanuel Kant mainly study?

3. How many members are in the group Led Zeppelin?

4. Name one of Zeppelin's songs.

#8- Bullshit and Philosophy

1. What does Cohen argue bullshit is characterized by?

2. What is the third element of bullshit?
3. When does bullshit succeed?
4. Where does bullshit mainly lie according to Frankfurt?
5. What does semantics concern?
6. What does pragmatic mean?
7. What Philosopher is noted as specializing in semantics?
8.What was logical positivism?
9. Are logical positivism and contemporary anti-bullshit programs related?
10. Who is the main proponent of the first and second strategy of bullshit respectively?
11. What is the mechanism of bullshit mean?

#8- God’s Dialogue

1. When was Kitty Genovese murdered?

2. Theo said "God made us free....and by giving us free will, God gave us the ability...." To act how?
3. What does Theo say God can't do?

4. If God exists, there is no unnecessary evil caused by natural disasters. There is unnecessary evil caused by natural disasters. Therefore, what does Eva conclude?

#8- 1984

1. Where does Winston Smith live?

2. What saying is running across the bottom of the telescreen?

3. Where does Winston work?

4. What are the three slogans of the Party?
From the final chapters of Little History (no separate quiz on the last day, but if there were these would be the questions):

1. What did John Rawls call the thought experiment he believed would yield fair and just principles, and what was its primary device?

2. Under what circumstances would Rawls' theory permit huge inequalities of wealth between people?

3. What was the Imitation Game, and who devised a thought experiment to oppose it?

4. What, according to Searle, is involved in truly understanding something?

5. How do some philosophers think we might use computers to achieve immortality?

6. What does Peter Singer say we should sacrifice, to help strangers?

7.Why did Singer first become famous?

8. How does Singer represent the best tradition in philosophy?

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