1. In the Hellenistic period Western philosophy came to be seen as what? What did the Hellenistic philosophies all praise, and what did they all see as the key to wisdom?
2. Of what later philosophy was Epicureanism the main ancestor?
3. What central problem of philosophy was Epicurus apparently the first to state?
4. From what did the Stoics take their name?
5. What was the one thing the Stoics thought the Epicureans were right about?
6. How does Gottlieb say the Stoics were inconsistent?
Mar 2, LH 3, DR 13 (p.336-357)
2. How did Pyrrho say you could become free from all worry? Does Warburton think this would work for most of us?
3. How does modern skepticism differ from its ancient predecessor?
4. Why does Gottlieb think Pyrrho must not have been as radically skeptical as legend has it?
5. What did David Hume say about too much skepticism?
6. What did "throwing in the sponge" mean, in Sextus Emiricus's story?
1. What happened in AD 529, and why is it a convenient milestone for philosophy?
2. What did medieval Christians "know" that Aristotle said wasn't so?
3. What's the one question almost everyone has heard about medieval philosophy? What's the obvious answer?
4. What was "the strangest document in the history of philosophy" and how did it catch the spirit of its time?
5. What was Plotinus's philosophy called, and what was its goal?
6. What did Proclus see as the job of philosophy?
1. What religion did Augustine espouse before his conversion to Christianity, and how did it account for evil?
2. To what did Augustine return, that most of the first philosophers had rejected?
3. What form does Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy take, what does it never explicitly mention, and how does it account for the compatibility of real choice with the existence of an omniscient deity?
4. How did Anselm define God, and what is his famous "proof" called?
5. Who was Heloise's boyfriend, what was his greatest misfortune, and how did he go beyond established traditions?
6. Who wrote Guide for the Perplexed? What did he try to do in it?
7. Who had a "razor," and what was it for?
8. Who declared that there are other worlds, and was burned at the stake?
9. What did Augustine famously pray for?
10. Whose First Cause Argument, echoing Aristotle, said a never-ending series of causes and effects would lead to an unacceptable what?
DR 15, LH 9-10
1. What effect did the new
Renaissance humanist movement have on philosophy?
2. What did Vespucci mean when he said New Worlders were more Epicurean than
3. What "prophet of modern science" nonetheless wanted to "build
on astrology, alchemy, and magic"? Why?
4. What 15th century "remarkable development" gave rise to mass
5. What did Luther refuse to accept? What was the essence of Protestantism?
6. Whose cousin first mentioned "scientific method" and said it could
support only "limited claims about the appearances"?
7. Who "revamped Epicurus' picture of the universe" to make it more
8. With what metaphor did Descartes propose to support the new scientific
worldview of Galileo?
9. What did Machiavelli say a leader needs to
130. Life outside society would be what, according to Hobbes?
2. Did Descartes claim to know (at the outset of his "meditations") that he was not dreaming?
3. What strange and mythic specter did Gilbert Ryle compare to Descartes' dualism of mind and body? ("The ____ in the ______.")
4. Pascal's best-known book is _____.
7. (T/F) By limiting his "wager" to a choice between either Christian theism or atheism, says Nigel Warburton, Pascal excludes too many other possible bets.
1. Spinoza's view, that God and nature (or the universe) are the same thing, is called _______.
2. If god is _____, there cannot be anything that is not god; if _____, god is indifferent to human beings.
3. Spinoza was a determinist, holding that _____ is an illusion.
4. According to John Locke, all our knowledge comes from _____; hence, the mind of a newborn is a ______.
9. What was Pope's way of saying that this is the best of all possible worlds? What German philosopher agreed, with his Principle of Sufficient Reason? What French writer disagreed, writing an acerbic philosophical novel?
10. What cataclysmic event did Voltaire use to make his case against Leibniz's optimism?
11. To what "faith" did Pangloss cling?
12. What does "cultivate our garden" mean?
13. Whose friends told him not to publish what during his lifetime?
14. What was Hume's view of miracles? What view did he share with Epicurus?
15. Who said we're born free but find ourselves "in chains"? How did he say we could break them? (By embracing what?)
16. What's the difference between the Will of All and the General Will?
1. How did Mill disagree with Bentham about pleasure?
What view did Mill defend in On Liberty?
3. What's the benefit to society of open
discussion, according to Mill, and what's wrong with being dogmatic?
4. Who did Bishop Wilberforce debate at Oxford
5. The single best idea anyone ever had was
what, according to whom?
6. What scientific developments since Darwin's
time establish evolution by natural selection as more than just a theory or
7. Who was the Danish Socrates, and what was
most of his writing about?
8. Why is faith irrational, according to Nigel
9. What is "the subjective point of
10. Why was Karl Marx angry? How did he think
the whole of human history could be explained?
11. What was Marx's "vision"?
12. What did Marx call religion?
April 13 LH 28-30
1. What's the point of James's squirrel story?
2. Who said truth is what we would end up with
if we could run all the experiments and investigations we'd like to? (And
what's a word his name rhymes with?)
3. What did Bertrand Russell say about James's
theory of truth?
4. What 20th century philosopher carried on the
pragmatist tradition? What did he say about the way words work?
5. What did Nietzsche mean by "God is
dead"? (And what's a word his name rhymes with?)
6. Where did Nietzsche think Christian values
7. What is an Ubermensch, and why does Nigel find it "a
8. How did Nietzsche differ from Kant but
9. What were the three great revolutions in
thought, according to Freud?
10. The "talking cure" gave birth to
11. Why did Freud think people believe in God?
12. What was Karl Popper's criticism of Freudian
whose autobiography led young Bertrand Russell to reject God? OR, What did he
see as the logical problem with the First Cause Argument?
2. The idea of a barber who shaves all who don't shave themselves is a
3. A.J. Ayer's _Principle, stated in his 1936 book Language, Truth and Logic, was part of the movement known as .
4. Humans don't have an , said Jean Paul Sartre, and are in "bad faith" like the
5. What was Sartre's frustrating advice to the student who didn't know whether to join the Resistance?
6. When Simone de Beauvoir said women are not born that way, she meant that they tend to accept what?
7. Which Greek myth did Albert Camus use to illustrate human absurdity, as he saw it?
-Who had a Near Death Experience his youthful philosophy would have declared "nonsense"?
- Name the faux English matrons who crossed the channel to ask Sartre about his views on freedom?
4. What was Arendt's descriptive phrase for what she saw as Eichmann's ordinariness?
6. What's the difference between induction and deduction?
1. What does the Greek term "Rhapsode" mean?
2. What does the philosopher Immanuel Kant mainly study?
3. How many members are in the group Led Zeppelin?
4. Name one of Zeppelin's songs.
#8- Bullshit and Philosophy
1. What does Cohen argue bullshit is characterized by?
2. What is the third element of bullshit?
3. When does bullshit succeed?
4. Where does bullshit mainly lie according to Frankfurt?
5. What does semantics concern?
6. What does pragmatic mean?
7. What Philosopher is noted as specializing in semantics?
8.What was logical positivism?
9. Are logical positivism and contemporary anti-bullshit programs related?
10. Who is the main proponent of the first and second strategy of bullshit respectively?
11. What is the mechanism of bullshit mean?
2. Theo said "God made us free....and by giving us free will, God gave us the ability...." To act how?
3. What does Theo say God can't do?
4. If God exists, there is no unnecessary evil caused by natural disasters. There is unnecessary evil caused by natural disasters. Therefore, what does Eva conclude?
1. Where does Winston Smith live?
From the final chapters of Little History (no separate quiz on the last day, but if there were these would be the questions):
1. What did John Rawls call the thought experiment he believed would yield fair and just principles, and what was its primary device?
2. Under what circumstances would Rawls' theory permit huge inequalities of wealth between people?
3. What was the Imitation Game, and who devised a thought experiment to oppose it?
4. What, according to Searle, is involved in truly understanding something?
5. How do some philosophers think we might use computers to achieve immortality?
6. What does Peter Singer say we should sacrifice, to help strangers?
7.Why did Singer first become famous?
8. How does Singer represent the best tradition in philosophy?