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Thursday, December 4, 2014

Exam 3 Study Guide

(13/1)

1. Q: Reading whose autobiography led young Bertrand Russell to reject God?
A: John Stewart Mills

2. Q: The idea of a barber who shaves all who don't shave themselves is a logical ____, a seeming contradiction that is both true and false. Another example of the same thing would be a statement like "this sentence is _____."
A: Paradox; false

3. Q: When Simone de Beauvoir said women are not born that way, she meant that they tend to accept what?
A: Men's Judgement

4. Q: Which young mathematical prodigy created the Redundancy Theory of Truth, according to which theory is unnecessary?
A: Frank Ramsey

5. Q: T/F: For Kierkegaard, the "Danish Socrates," the point of the Abraham/Isaac story is simply not to doubt God's word.
A: False

6. Q: T/F: Claire Carlisle says Kierkegaard perceived a complacency of faith among his fellow Christians, and wanted his readers to question whether Abraham did the right thing?
A: True

7. Q: For Karl Marx, history was what kind of struggle, involving whom?
A: A class struggle between have and have-nots.

8. Q: Schopenhauer was _____ in general, but ______ about the possibility of personal "enlightenment." (optimistic/pessimistic)
A: Pessimistic: Optimistic

9. Q: In what 1859 book did J.S. Mill defend "giving each person space to develop as they saw fit?"
 A: On Liberty

10. Q: Who thought he might better understand Hegel if he first ingested nitrous oxide before reading The Phenomenology of Spirit?
A: William James
==

1. Wittgenstein's main message was that _____ lie beyond the limits of our understanding and that we should probably stay silent about them. LH 203

2. Hannah Arendt described the Nazi Eichmann with the phrase _________, suggesting that the most ordinary-seeming people are capable of great evil. LH 212

3. John Rawls' "stroke of genius" was a thought experiment called the ______, in which people are presumed to select principles of justice behind a veil of _______. LH 230

4. Alan Turing designed a test for _______. LH 235

5. John Searle's ______ Room thought experiment was designed to show that computers ____ (can, can't) think. LH 234

6. Peter Singer calls those who don't give enough weight to the interests of animals _____. LH 243
==
1. Reading whose autobiography led young Bertrand Russell to reject God? OR, What did he see as the logical problem with the First Cause Argument? LH 185

2. The idea of a barber who shaves all who don't shave themselves is a logical ______, a seeming contradiction that is both true and false. Another example of the same thing would be a statement like "This sentence is ___." LH 186

3. A.J. Ayer's ______ Principle, stated in his 1936 book Language, Truth and Logic, was part of the movement known as _____ ______. LH 190

4. Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophy of freedom and personal responsibility, which denied that humans possess a common essence, was called ________. LH 200

5. When Simone de Beauvoir said women are not born that way, she meant that they tend to accept what? LH 200

6. Which Greek myth did Albert Camus use to illustrate human absurdity, as he saw it? LH 200

==
1. _____, for C.S. Peirce,  is what we would end up with if we could run all the relevant scientific experiments; it is inseparable from its practical consequences, and it is what works. LH 166

2. Bertrand Russell made fun of William James's pragmatic theory of truth by saying it implied that _____ exists. LH 168

3. _______ was a 20th century pragmatist who said we should think of words as tools, not as a mirror of nature. LH 169

4. (T/F) By announcing that "God is dead," Nietzsche was saying that God had been alive at one time and now wasn't. LH  171

5. Freud thought he'd achieved a revolution in thought with his "discovery" of what? LH 177

6. According to Aaron Ridley, Nietzsche blamed what ancient philosopher for bringing about "the death of tragedy" and an equation between reason and reality? LH 174

==
1. (T/F) For Kierkegaard, the "Danish Socrates," the point of the Abraham/Isaac story is simply not to doubt God's word. LH 152

2. (T/F) Kierkegaard thought real Christians should find it easy to follow their faith, even if that sometimes means being irrational or abandoning ethics. LH 155


3. (T/F) Clare Carlisle says Kierkegaard perceived a complacency of faith among his fellow Christians, and wanted his readers to question whether Abraham did the right thing. PB 167


4. For Karl Marx, history was what kind of struggle, involving whom? LH 159


5. Marx's famous slogan, describing the governing principle in a post-capitalist utopia:  "____ according to ability, _____ according to need." LH 161


6. Marx called religion the "____ of the people." LH 162

==

1. Hegel ____  (accepted, rejected) Kant's view that noumenal reality lies beyond our reach, and that we can know only the appearances of things in the phenomenal world. LH 128

2. Schopenhauer was _____  in general, but ______ about the possibility of personal "enlightenment". (optimistic, pessimistic)  LH 132-3


3. In what 1859 book did J.S. Mill defend "giving each person space to develop as they saw fit"? LH 141


4. What did Daniel Dennett call "the single best idea anyone has ever had"? LH 146


5. Stern says Hegel's philosophy is ______ (similar to, different from) Mill's in its emphasis on progress, optimism, and freedom of speech. PB 152-3


6. Reeves says for Mill, a good life is happy and ______ . PB 163

For extra credit, supply and answer your own discussion question OR answer this one: Who's your favorite philosopher? Why?

For extra extra credit, translate "Sapere Aude"... and then do it. Good luck, CoPhi '14.




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