Up@dawn 2.0

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Study Guide

  1. What state of mind, belief, or knowledge was Descartes’ Method of Doubt supposed to establish? Or, what did Descartes seek that Phyrro spurred? 
  1. Did Descartes claim to know (at the outset of his “meditations”) that he was not dreaming? 
  1. What strange and mythic specter did Gilbert Ryle compare to Descartes’ dualism of mind and body? 
  1. Sarah Bakewell says Montaigne’s first answer to the question “How tolive?” is: “Don’t worry about ______”  
  1. What was Montaigne’s “near death experience” and what did it teach him?  
  1. Montaigne said “my mind will not budge unless ________________”  
  1. Pascal thought if you gamble on God and lose, “you lose_________” 
  1. (T/F) By limiting his “wager” to a choice between either Christian theism or atheism, says Nigel, Pascal excluded too many other possible bets.  
  1. Spinoza’s view, that God and nature (or the universe) are the same thing, is called __________ 
  1.  Spinoza was a determinist, holding that __________ is an illusion 
  1.  If God is _______, there cannot be anything that is not good; if __________, God is indifferent to human beings 
  1. Susan James says Spinoza’s “main claim” is that we’re always striving to make ourselves more _________ 
  1.  According to John Locke, all our knowledge comes from _________; hence, the mind of a newborn is a __________ 
  1.  Locke said __________ contuity establishes personal identity; Thomas Reid said identity relies on __________ memories, not total recall 
  1. Bishop George Berkeley was a metaphysical idealist because he believed all that exists are _________ ; he was an immaterialist because he denied that _________ exists; he was an __________ because he said all knowledge comes from direct personal experiences 
  1. Esse est percipi means what? 
  1. Who kicked a stone to try and refute Berkeley’s idealism? 
  1. What was Berkeley’s response to the criticism that his view allows no distinction between reality and illusion? 
  1. What English poet declared that “whatever is, is right”? 
  1. What German philosopher, with his “Principle of Sufficient Reason”, agreed with the poet?  
  1. What French champion of free speech and religious toleration wrote a satirical novel/ play ridiculing the idea that everything is awesome? 
  1. What 1755 catastrophe deeply influenced Voltaire’s philosophy? 
  1. What did Voltaire mean by “cultivating our garden”? 
  1. Was Voltaire an atheist? 
  1.  (T/F) Hume thought the human eye so flawless in its pattered intricacy that, like Paley’s watch, it constitutes powerful evidence of intelligent design 
  1.  (T/F) Hume’s view was that it’s occasionally more plausible to believe that a miracle (the unexplained suspension of a law of nature) has happened, than not 
  1. Rosseau said we’re born free but everywhere are in ______, but can liberate ourselves by submitting to what is best for the whole community also known as the ___________ 
  1. The ________________ is what we say we want, when we think selfishly 
  1. Which of Hume’s books was published posthumously? 
  1. What was Hume’s Epicurean deathbed statement to Boswell? 
  1. Kant said we cant know the ________ world of things in themselves, but we can know the _______ world of appearances as presented my our mental “spectacles” 
  1. If ( and only if) you help an injured stranger because _________ (it is your duty to feel sorry for him) Kant says you’ve acted morally 
  1. Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism confirms the Greatest _________ Principle, defining ________ as pleasure and the absence of pain.  
  1. According to Nigel, the best way for a Benthamite to maximize pleasure and minimize pain would be to plug into what? Or, who was Bentham’s famous pupil and critic, who said maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain is not all there is to the good life? 
  1. What Irish born critic of the French Revolution said it was a sham, proclaiming equality as a pretext for redistributing property? 
  1. According to Moore, where does Kant rank among philosophers?  
  1. Who was Minerva and what did Hegel have to say about her? 
  1. Hegel _____ Kant’s view that noumenal reality lies beyond our reach, and that we can only know the appearance of things in the phenomenal world. 
  1. Stern says Hegel’s philosophy is _________  Mill’s in its emphasis on progress, optimism, and freedom of speech 
  1. Schopenhauer was ______ in general, but ______ about the possibility of personl “enlightenment” 
  1. Schopenhauer called the “deeper reality beyond the world of experience” _________ 
  1.  (T/F) Even though he once pushed an old lady down the stairs for chatting outside his door, Schopenhauer thought harming other people was a kimd of self-injury.  
  1.  John Stuart Mill criticized his father’s friend ________’s version of utilitarianism, saying it failed to distinguish higher and lower _______ of pleasure 
  1. What was the title of Mill’s 1859 defense of “giving each person space to develop as they saw fit” so long as they do no harm in the process?  
  1. What did Mill think happens to views and opinions that go unchallenged? What do they turn into? 
  1.  (T/F) Charles Darwin defended evolution by natural selection “the single best idea anyone has had”  
  1. (T/F) Charles defended evolution by natural selection in a debate at the Oxford Museum of Natural History 
  1. What do we know that Darwin didn’t that makes evolution more than “just a hypothesis”? 
  1. (T/F) For Kierkegaard, the “Danish Socrates”, the point of the Abraham/Isaac story is simply not to doubt God’s word 
  1. (T/F) Kierkegaard thought real Christians should find it easy to follow their faith, even if that sometimes means being irrational or abandoning ethics.  
  1. (T/F) Clare Carlisle says Kierkegaard perceived a complacency of faith among his fellow Christians and wanted his readers to question whether Abraham did the right thing 
  1. For Karl Marx, history was what kind of struggle, involving whom? 
  1. Marx’s famous slogan, describing the governing principle in a post-capitalist utopia: “____________ according to ability, ________ according to need” 
  1. Marx called religion the “ ________ of the people” 
  1. Charles Sanders Peirce said truth is what we would end up with if we could do what? 
  1. William James gave an example of the pragmatic approach to philosophical questions by discussing what scenario (or what dispute)? 
  1. Who made fun of James’s theory of truth by saying it meant he had to believe in Santa Claus? 
  1. What twentieth century pragmatist said words are for coping with the world, not copying it? 
  1. What does “cash value” mean for a pragmatist? 
  1. Who was William James’s famous brother? 
  1. Was Friedrich Nietzsche speaking literally when he said “God is dead”? 
  1. Where did Nietzsche say values like compassion, kindness, and consideration come from? 
  1. What did Nietzsche call the future type of person who renounces conventional moral codes, and why does Nigel find it worrying? 
  1. What kind of cure led to psychoanalysis? What did Sigmund Freud consider the “the great revolution” in thought? 
  1. What is a Freudian slip? 
  1. Reading whose autobiography led young Bertrand Russell to reject God? OR, what did he see as the logical problem with the First Cause Argument? 
  1. The idea of a barber who shaves all who don’t shave themselves is a logical _______, a seeming contradiction that is both true and false. Another example of the same thing would be a statement like “ This sentence is ______” 
  1. A.J. Ayer’s __________ Principle, stated in his 1936 book Language, Truth, and Logic, was part of the movement known as ________________ 
  1. Jean- Paul Sartre’s philosophy of freedom and personal responsibility, which denied that humans possess a common essence, was called ____________ 
  1. When Simone de Beauvoir said women are nit born that way, she meant that they tend to accept what? 
  1. Which Greek myth did Albert Camus use to illustrate human absurdity, as he saw it? 
  2. What was the main message of Wittgenstein's Tractatus?
  3. What did the later Wittgenstein (of Philosophical Investigations) mean by "language games"?
  4. Who  was Adolf Eichmann, and what did Arendt learn about him at his trial?
  5. What was Arendt's descriptive phrase for what she saw as Eichmann's ordinariness?
  6. What did John Rawls call the thought experiment he believed would yield fair and just principles, and what was its primary device?
  7. Under what circumstances would Rawl's theory permit huge inequalities of wealth between people?

1 comment:

  1. Wow, that was fast! Thanks, Emily.