Up@dawn 2.0

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Section 10 Study Guide

Here's a study guide for Section 10! Let me know if anything's been left off! 

1. Voltaire's book, Candide, directly opposed the ideas of which philosophical peer?

A: Leibniz

2. Hume's book, ____________________, challenged many philosophical beliefs and included a chapter attacking the Design Argument.

A: Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

3. Which mathematical discipline did Spinoza model his writings after?

A: Geometry

4. Which philosopher argued that it is better to wager that God exists rather than not believe?

A: Pascal

5. Berkely was the originator of what metaphysical philosophy?

A: Subjective Realism

6. Descarte's theory of dualism posited that the ____________ and the ___________ are seperate.

A: mind, body

7. Which philosopher was a major influence on the writers of the Declaration of Independence with his liberal theory?

A: Locke

8. The beliefs of Hobbes and Rousseau are diametrically opposite concerning humanity's __________?

A: State of nature

9. Spinoza was excommunicated by the Jewish Church for what religious idea?

A: Pantheism

10. Which moral philosophical belief judges the morality of actions on its adherence to rules?

A: Deontology

Q)  What was defined by Rousseau, as whatever is best for the whole community, the whole state?
A)  General Will

Q)  From what did Hume believe that we gained knowledge?
A)  Observations and experiences

Q)  True or false:  Montaigne never contradicted himself.
A)  False

Q)  What group argues the simple view of science is misguided?
A)  Falsificationists

Q)  Aside from being a philosopher, Pascal was a skilled inventor, scientist, and _______.
A)  Mathematician

Q)  Which math subject did Spinoza base his philosophy on?
A)  Geometry

Q)  What approach to philosophy emphasizes reason rather than experiment?       
A)  Rationalism

Q)  True or false:  Pascal was a pessimist.
A)  True

Q)  What means accepting as true the views of various important authorities?
A)  Truth by authority

Q)  Who wrote  “He who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men. We can judge the heart of a man by his treatment of animals?”
A)  Immanuel Kant

1. For Locke, questions of personal identity were closely related with _______ _______.
       - Moral Responsibility

2. According to George Berkeley, anything that stops being _______ ceases to _______.
       - Noticed; Exist

3. (T/F) Spinoza's god cared about each and every human being.
       - False

4. Which math subject did Spinoza base his philosophy on?
       - Geometry

5. What group argues that the simple view of science is misguided?
       - Falsificationists

6. (T/F) Descartes was more certain of his mind than his body.
        - True

7. _______ by _______ means accepting as true the views of various important 'authorities'.
         - Truth; Authority

8. Who said "There is more to seeing than meets the eyeball?"
         - Russell Hanson

9. What approach to philosophy emphasizes reason rather than experiment/observation?
         - Rationalism

10. (T/F) Berkeley believed we perceive the world indirectly, where Locke thought we perceive it directly.
         - False

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