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Friday, December 6, 2013

Exam #3 study guide

Remember to study the relevant texts, don't just memorize.
Good luck. Don't stop asking questions.
Section 16 - Group 1 Final Exam Review Questions:

1.      New York Times called Obama what because of his speeches? (Professor in Chief)

2.      Who was a Cambridge mathematician who helped invent the modern day computer? (Alan Turning)

3.      Which Australian philosopher argued that a drowning child in front of you is as bad as the starving children in Africa? (Peter Singer)

4.      Which American philosopher wrote the highly influential book A Theory of Justice in 1971? (John Rawls)

5.      What famous thought experiment did Judith Jarvis Thomson come up with to argue for a woman's right to choose to have a baby? (The famous violinist)

6.      Who wrote Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus? (Ludwig Wittgenstein)

7.      What did Paul Fussel mainly study? (Class Structure)

8.      Which philosopher used the Greek myth of Sisyphus to explain "human absurdity”? (Albert Camus)

9.      What did Nietzsche start his career as? (Classical Philologist)

10.  Which philosopher helped found the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament? (Russell)

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16-2 
Which social class did Karl Marx fight for? (the working class, or proletariat)

Which book, written by Kierkegaard, gives the reader a choice between aesthetic and the ethical? [Either/ Or] LHp 153

Who was the philosopher who wrote under the name Johannes de Silentio - John of Silence? (Soren Kierkegaard)

Was Charles Darwin a philosopher? ( No, he was a biologist and a geologist) [He was both: JPO]

What was Darwin's famous book called? (On the Origin of Species)

Mill's message, " Every adult should be free to live as he or she pleases as long as no one else is harmed" is known as ________? The Harm Principle [LH p141]

Who was a German philosopher and a major figure in German Idealism? Hegal

Schopenhauer believed that we are all part of what he called _______. [The World of Will

For Schopenhauer, the reality exists in what two aspects? ( Will and Representation)

What are antinomies? (literally unresolvable contradictions)

What book did John Mill write about giving people room to grow like trees? (On Liberty)

Who discovered a verification principle? (Alfred Ayer)

What was Bertrand Russell's method of explaining how what we say relates to what exists called? (Theory of Descriptions)

What theory did Ramsay come up with? (Success Semantics)

How old was Alfred Jules Ayer when he wrote Language, Truth, and Logic (LTL)?

______ is the special category of people who think that all talk of God existing or not existing is complete nonsense?

Henry Sidewick, a late 19th century Victorian philosopher and professor at Cambridge University who wrote "Method of Ethics" was a ________ utilitarian. (hedonistic)

who wrote The Varieties of Religious Experience? James

Who discovered the third great revolution in human thought called unconsciousness? ( Sigmund Freud)

What was Pierce's, James', and Rorty's ideology? (Pragmatism)

What philosopher was a mathematician and helped invent the modern computer? ( Alan Turing)

What philosopher asserted that it is just as wrong to perform painful experiments on an animal as it is to perform them on a mentally disabled human being? (Peter Singer)

what is Peter Singer known for writing?(Animal Liberation)

What did Alan Turing originally name the Turing Test? (The Imitation Game)

Originally called the Imitation Game, _________ was a test for artificial intelligence

Who is one of the most influential,modern philosophers? (Peter Singer)

Who invented the Chinese Room thought experiment? (John Searle)

Who wrote the most influential book of the twentieth century, called A Theory of Justice? (John Rawls)

What type of income is emphasized in Rawls' "A Theory of Justice"? (Average income)

What is the name of Ludwig Wittgenstein's first book? (Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus)

Which philosopher founded the school of thought known as Existentialism, which believes that human life is meaningless and the only purpose for our lives are what we give them? (Sartre)

Who was the best known philosopher of the twentieth century? (Jean-Paul Sartre)

What was the name of the cafe in which Jean-Paul Sartre would often spend his time? (Les Deux Magots - The Two Wise Men)______ came from the ideas that we find ourselves first existing in the world, then having to decide what will make of our lives? ( Existentialism)

______ came from the ideas that we find ourselves first existing in the world, then having to decide what will make of our lives? ( Existentialism)

_______ is pretending to yourself something which if you thought about it for 5 minutes you would realize was not true. (bad faith)

Scientists and philosophers of the nineteenth century were impressed by which philosopher's description of scientific method? ( Karl Popper)

Where was Arendt born? (Linden, Germany)

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NoPhi (16-3) Study Guide

hi (16-3) Test Questions

1: Which German philosopher believed that history follows reason and has a natural order?
(Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel)


2: Who was a child genius philosopher who was taught by Jeremy Bentham and fought for equal rights for men and women to do as they wanted as long as it didn't harm others?
(John Stewart Mill)

3: Who was the nineteenth-century Danish philosopher and Christian theologian who is credited with being a father of existentialism?
(Soren Kierkegaard)

4: what is the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual? 
(Existentialism)

5: Who was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist?
(Karl Marx)

6: Which art obsessed, German philosopher proclaimed that "god is dead" in one of his most famous books?
(Friedrich Nietzsche)

7: What is the movement that began in the twentieth century, primarily with the writings of Charles Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey? 
(Pragmatism)

8: What twentieth century French novelist/philosopher wrote 'Being and Nothingness'?
(Jean-Paul Sartre)

9: _______was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language, he also taught at the University of Cambridge.
(Wittgenstein)

10: The 'Liberty Principle', the 'Difference Principle', and the 'Fair Opportunity Principle are the key ideas in which book written by John Rawls in 1971?
(A Theory of Justice)

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